Transforming Growth Factors Produced by Viral-Transformed and Human Tumor Cells

  • George J. Todaro
  • Hans Marquardt
  • Daniel R. Twardzik
  • Fred H. ReynoldsJr.
  • John R. Stephenson


The isolation of retroviruses with acute transforming function has occurred with increasing frequency over the past few years. Such viruses represent genetic recombinants between host cellular sequences (oncogenes) and non-transforming type C virus structural genes (Fischinger, 1980; Klein, 1982). Viruses of this nature transform cells in culture and induce neoplasms of a variety of histological classes in vivo. Although the number of independent retrovirus isolates is high, the total number of unique “oncogenes” so far represented in such viruses is only 13 or 14 (Coffin et al., 1981). Several of these are represented as multiple virus isolates of the same oncogene, and in several instances have originated in different species (Weinberg, 1982). By comparison to transforming sequences identified within the DNA of in-vitro-propagated human tumor cells, one oncogene, c-has, has been implicated in the induction of human bladder carcinomas (Der et al., 1982; Parada et al., 1982; Santos et al., 1982), whereas a second gene, c-kis, appears to be associated with carcinomas of the lung (Der et al., 1982). Other cellular homologues of viral oncogenes including c-myc (Dalla-Favera et al., 1982), c-fes (Dalla-Favera et al., 1982; Heisterkamp et al., 1982), c-sis (Swan et al.,1982), and c-abl (Heisterkamp et al., 1982) have been mapped on chromosomes involved in translocations frequently associated with human lymphoid neoplasms.


Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Epidermal Growth Factor Human Tumor Cell Epidermal Growth Factor Binding Murine Sarcoma Virus 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • George J. Todaro
    • 1
  • Hans Marquardt
    • 1
  • Daniel R. Twardzik
    • 1
  • Fred H. ReynoldsJr.
    • 1
  • John R. Stephenson
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of Viral Carcinogenesis, National Cancer InstituteNational Institutes of HealthFrederickUSA

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