The Relationship between Membrane Lipid Fluidity and Phase State and the Ability of Bacteria and Mycoplasmas to Grow and Survive at Various Temperatures
Many of the contributions in this volume are concerned with the physical measurement and biochemical regulation of membrane lipid fluidity in prokaryotic microorganisms. This contribution is primarily concerned with the biological function of such regulatory mechanisms and with the physiological consequences of their absence or impairment. In the first part of this essay, some brief comments on the concept of fluidity as applied to membranes are offered and a short, critical analysis of the physical techniques available for the measurement of lipid fluidity and phase state is given. Next, a summary and critical discussion of what we currently know about the relationship between membrane lipid fluidity and phase state and the ability of bacteria and mycoplasmas to grow at various temperatures are presented. Related work on the influence of the fatty acid composition of the lipids of bacterial membranes on their ability to survive exposure to extremes of temperature is then reviewed. Finally, the possible molecular bases for the observed relationships between membrane lipid fluidity and phase state and the growth and survival of prokaryotic microorganisms are discussed, as is the biological significance of homeoviscous or homeophasic regulatory mechanisms in bacteria and mycoplasmas.
KeywordsElectron Spin Resonance Fatty Acid Composition Membrane Lipid Growth Temperature Phase Transition Temperature
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Amelunxen, R. E., and Murdock, A. L., 1978, Microbial life at high temperatures: Mechanisms and molecular aspects, in: Microbial Life in Extreme Environments (D. J. Kushner, ed.), pp. 217–278, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
- Harold, F. M., 1977, Membranes and energy transduction in bacteria, in: Current Topics in Bioenergetics, Vol. 7 (D. R. Sanadi, ed.), pp. 83–147, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
- Inniss, W. E., and Ingraham, J. L., 1978, Microbial life at low temperatures: Mechanisms and molecular aspects, in: Microbial Life in Extreme Environments (D. J. Kushner, ed.), pp. 73–104, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
- Lawaczeck, R., Blackman, R., and Kainosho, M., 1977, Ion permeation across the bilayer of annealed phosphatidylcholine vesicles at elevated temperatures, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 468:441.Google Scholar
- McElhaney, R. N., 1982b, Effects of membrane lipids on transport and enzymic activities in: Current Topics in Membranes and Transport, Vol. 17 (S. Razin and S. Rottem, eds.), pp. 317–380, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
- Melchior, D. L., and Steim, J. M., 1979, Lipid-associated thermal events in biomembranes, in: Progress in Surface and Membrane Science, Vol. 13 (D. A. Cadenhead and J. F. Danielli, eds.), pp. 211–296, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
- Paton, J. C., McMurchie, E. J., May, B. K., and Elliott, W. H., 1978, Effect of growth temperature on membrane fatty acid composition and susceptibility to cold shock of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, J. Bacteriol. 135:754.Google Scholar
- Rottem, S., Yashouv, J., Ne’eman, Z., and Razin, S., 1973a, Cholesterol in Mycoplasma membranes: Composition, ultrastructure and biological properties of membranes from Mycoplasma mycoides var. capri cells adapted to grow with low cholesterol concentrations, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 323:495.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Rottem, S., Cirillo, V. P., de Kruyff, B., Shinitzky, M., and Razin, S., 1973b, Cholesterol in mycoplasma membranes: Correlation of enzymic and transport activities with physical state of lipids of Mycoplasma mycoides var. capri adapted to grow with low cholesterol concentrations, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 323:509.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Schreier, S., Polnaszek, C. F., and Smith, I. C. P., 1978, Spin labels in membranes: Problems in practice, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 515:375.Google Scholar
- Silvius, J. R., Mak, N., and McElhaney, R. N., 1980b, Why do prokaryotes regulate membrane lipid fluidity?, in: Membrane Fluidity: Biophysical Techniques and Cellular Regulation (M. Kates and A. Kuksis, eds.), pp. 213–222, Humana Press, Clifton, N.J.Google Scholar
- Steim, J. M., 1970, Phase transitions in model and biological membranes, in: Liquid Crystals and Ordered Fluids (J. F. Johnson and R. S. Porter, eds.), pp. 1–11, Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar