Advertisement

Schottky Barrier Gate Charge-Coupled Devices

  • Dieter K. Schroder

Abstract

A charge-coupled device (CCD) is a shift register in an integrated, compact format. The idea of making a shift register for analog signals and using it as a delay line, dates to the early fifties.(1) The basic principle is quite simple. Sampled values of the analog signal are stored in the form of charges on a series of capacitors. A switch between each capacitor transfers the charge from one capacitor to the next, following a command from a clock pulse.

Keywords

Gate Voltage Interface State SCHOTTKY Barrier Dark Current Minority Carrier 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Bibliography

  1. D.F. Barbe (ed.), Charge-Coupled Devices, Springer-Verlag, New York (1980).Google Scholar
  2. D.F. Barbe and S.B. Campana, in Advances in Image Pickup and Display (B. Kazan, ed.), Vol. 3, pp. 171–296, Academic Press, New York (1977).Google Scholar
  3. J.D.E. Beynon and D.R. Lamb (ed.), Charge-Coupled Devices and Their Applications, McGraw-Hill, London (1980).Google Scholar
  4. L.J.M. Esser and F.L.J. Sangster, in Handbook on Semiconductors (C. Hilsum, ed.), Vol. 4, pp. 335–421, North-Holland Publishing Co., Amsterdam (1981).Google Scholar
  5. G.S. Hobson, Charge Transfer Devices, John Wiley and Sons, New York (1978).Google Scholar
  6. R. Melen and D. Buss, Charge-Coupled Devices: Technology and Applications, IEEE Press, New York (1977).Google Scholar
  7. M.J. Howes and D.V. Morgan (eds.), Charge-Coupled Devices and Systems, Wiley-Interscience, Chichester (1979).Google Scholar
  8. C.H. Sequin and M.F. Tompsett, Charge Transfer Devices, Academic Press, New York (1975).Google Scholar

References

  1. 1.
    J.M.L. Janssen, Discontinuous low frequency delay line with continuously variable delay, Nature 169, 148–149 (1952).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    W.J. Hannan, J.F. Schanne, and DJ. Woywood, Automatic correction of timing errors in magnetic tape recorders, IEEE Trans. MIL-9, 246–254 (1965).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    R.A. Mao, K.R. Keller, and R.W. Ahrons, Integrated MOS analog delay line, IEEE Int. Solid State Circuits Conf. Philadelphia, pp. 164–165 (1969).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    F.L.J. Sangster and K. Teer, Bucket brigade electronics, IEEE J. Solid State Circuits SC-4, 131–136 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    F.L.J. Sangster, The bucket brigade delay line, A shift register for analogue signals, Phil. Tech. Rev. 31, 97–110(1970).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    W.S. Boyle and G.E. Smith, Charge-coupled semiconductor devices, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 49 587–593 (1970).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    R.H. Waiden, R.H. Krambeck, R.J. Strain, J. McKenna, N.L. Schryer, and G.E. Smith, The buried channel charge coupled device, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 51, 1635–1640 (1972)Google Scholar
  8. 7a.
    C.K. Kim, J.M. Early, and G.F. Amelio, Buried channel charge-coupled devices, NEREM, Boston, pp. 161–164 (1972).Google Scholar
  9. 8.
    L.J.M. Esser, Peristaltic charge coupled device: A new type of charge transfer device, Electr. Lett. 8, 620–621 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 9.
    L.J.M. Esser and F.L.J. Sangster, in Handbook on Semiconductors (C. Husum, ed.), Vol. 4, pp. 335–421, North-Holland Publishing Co., Amsterdam (1981).Google Scholar
  11. 10.
    D.K. Schroder, A two-phase germanium charge-coupled device, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 747–749 (1974).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 11.
    R.D. Thorn, T.L. Koch, J.D. Langan, and W.J. Parrish, A fully monolithic InSb infrared CCD array, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-27, 160–170 (1980).ADSGoogle Scholar
  13. 12.
    E.E. Barrowcliff, L.O. Bubelac, D.T. Cheung, A.M. Andrews, J.D. Blackwell, F. Cox, E.R. Gertner, W.E. Tenant, J.J. Ludowise, and L.E. Wood, Planar GalnSb CCDs, CCD Applie. Conf., San Diego, pp. 2–15 (1978).Google Scholar
  14. 13.
    R.A. Chapman, S.R. Borrello, A. Simmons, J.D. Beck, A.J. Lewis, M.A. Kinch, J. Hynecek, and C.G. Roberts, Monolithic HgCdTe charge transfer device infrared imaging arrays, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-27, 134–145 (1980).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 14.
    F.L. Schuermeyer, R.A. Belt, C.R. Young, and J.M. Blasingame, New structures for charge-coupled devices, Proc. IEEE 60, 1444–1445 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 15.
    W. Kellner, H. Bierhenke, and H. Kniepkamp, A. Schottky-barrier CCD on GaAs, Int. Electron Device Meet., Washington, p. 599 (1977).Google Scholar
  17. 16.
    I. Deyhimy, J.S. Harris Jr., R.C. Eden, D.D. Edwall, S.J. Anderson, and L.O. Bubelac, GaAs charge-coupled devices, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 383–385 (1978).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 17.
    R.C. Eden, Comparison of GaAs device approaches for ultrahigh-speed VLSI, Proc. IEEE 70, 5–12 (1982).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 18.
    I. Deyhimy, W.A. Hill, and R.J. Anderson, Continuously clocked 1 GHzGaAs CCD, IEEE Electr. Dev. Lett. EDL-2, 70–72 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 19.
    H. Gautier and P. Tournois, Signal processing using surface-acoustic-wave and digital components, IEE Proc. 127F, 92–98 (1980).Google Scholar
  21. 20.
    H.H. Wieder, Problems and prospects of compound semiconductor field-effect transistors, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 17, 1009–1018 (1980).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 21.
    D.F. Barbe and S.B. Campana, in Advances in Image Pickup and Display, (B. Kazan, ed.), Vol. 3, pp. 171–296, Academic Press, New York (1977).Google Scholar
  23. 22.
    J.D. Beynon and D.R. Lamb (eds.), Charge-Coupled Devices and Their Applications, McGraw-Hill, London (1980).Google Scholar
  24. 23.
    G.M. Martin, J.P. Farges, G. Jacob, J.P. Hallais, and G. Poiblaud, Compensation mechanisms in GaAs, J. Appl. Phys. 51, 2840–2852 (1980).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 24.
    E.J. Johnson, J. Kafalas, R.W. Davies, and W.A. Dyes, Deep center EL2 and anti-Stokes luminescence in semi-insulating GaAs, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 993–995 (1982).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 25.
    J.S. Blakemore, Semiconductor Statistics, Pergamon Press, New York (1962).MATHGoogle Scholar
  27. 26.
    W. Shockley, Electrons and Holes in Semiconductors, Van Nostrand, Amsterdam (1950).Google Scholar
  28. 27.
    R. Zucca, Electrical compensation in semi-insulating GaAs, J. Appl. Phys. 48, 1987–1994 (1977).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 28.
    Y.M. Houng and G.L. Peason, Deep trapping effects at the GaAs-GaAs: Cr interface in GaAs FET structures, J. Appl. Phys. 49, 3348–3352 (1978).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 29.
    L. Eaves and P.J. Williams, Decay of the deep-level extrinsic photoconductivity response of n-GaAs (Cr, Si) at liquid helium temperature, J. Phys. C: Solid State Phys. 12, L725–728 (1979).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 30.
    N. Yokoyama, A. Shibatomi, S. Ohkawa, M. Fukuta, and H. Ishikawa, Electrical properties of the interface between an n-GaAs epitaxial layer and a Cr-doped substrate, Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 33b, 201–209 (1977).Google Scholar
  32. 31.
    M.F. Tompsett, Charge transfer devices, J. Vac. Sci. Technol 9, 1166–1181 (1972).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 32.
    L.J.M. Esser, in Solid-State Imaging (P.G. Jespers, F.v.d. Wiele, and M.H. White, eds.), pp. 343–425, Noordhoff International Publishers, Leyden (1976).Google Scholar
  34. 33.
    J.E. Carnes, W.F. Kosonocky, and E.G. Ramberg, Free charge transfer in charge-coupled devices, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-19, 798–808 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 34.
    G.F. Amelio, Computer modeling of charge-coupled device characteristics, Bell Syst. Techn. J. 51, 705–730 (1972).Google Scholar
  36. 35.
    K. Hess and CT. Sah, The ultimate limits of CCD performance imposed by hot electron effects, Solid-State Electronics 22, 1025–1033 (1979).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 36.
    I. Deyhimy, R.C. Eden, and J.S. Harris Jr., GaAs and related heterojunction charge-coupled devices, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-27, 1172–1180 (1980).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 37.
    M.F. Tompsett and E.J. Zimany, Use of charge-coupled devices for delaying analog signals, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits SC-8, 151–157 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 38.
    J.E. Carnes, W.F. Kosonocky, and P.A. Levine, Measurements of noise in charge-coupled devices, RCA Rev. 34, 553–565 (1973).Google Scholar
  40. 39.
    W.F. Kosonocky, Charge-coupled digital circuits, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits SC-6, 314–322 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 40.
    H. Kressel and J.K. Butler, Semiconductor Lasers and Heterojunction LEDs, Academic Press, New York (1977).Google Scholar
  42. 41.
    M.M. Blouke and D.A. Robinson, A method for improving the spatial resolution of frontside-illuminated CCDs, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-28, 251–256 (1981).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 42.
    Y.Z. Liu, I. Deyhimy, RJ. Anderson, J.S. Harris Jr., and L.R. Tomasetta, GaAlAs/GaAs heterojunction Schottky barrier gate CCD, Int. Electron Device Meet., Washington, pp. 622–624 (1979).Google Scholar
  44. 43.
    Y.Z. Liu, I. Deyhimy, J.S. Harris Jr., R.J. Anderson, J. Appelbaum, and J.H. Polland, Observation of charge storage and charge transfer in a GaAlAsSb/GaSb charge-coupled device, Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 458–461 (1980).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 44.
    Y.Z. Liu, I. Deyhimy, R.J. Anderson, R.A. Milano, M.J. Cohen, J.S. Harris Jr., and L.R. Tomasetta, A backside-illuminated imaging AlGaAs/GaAs charge-coupled device, Appl. Phys. Lett. 37, 803–805 (1980).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 45.
    Y.Z. Liu, R.A. Milano, RJ. Anderson, I. Deyhimy, and M.J. Cohen, Low dark current glass bonded AlGaAs/GaAs Schottky gate imaging CCD, Int. Electron Device Meet., Washington, pp. 338–341 (1980).Google Scholar
  47. 46.
    S.M. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices, 2nd ed., Wiley-Interscience, New York (1981).Google Scholar
  48. 47.
    R.A. Milano, Y.Z. Liu, R.J. Anderson, and M.J. Cohen, Very-low dark-current hetrojunction CCDs, IEEE Trans. Electron. Device ED-29, 1294–1301 (1982).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 48.
    K.W. Loh, D.K. Schroder, R.C. Clarke, A. Rohatgi, and G. W. Eldridge, Low leakage current GaAs diodes, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-28, 796–800 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 49.
    G.A. Antcliffe, L.J. Hornbeck, W.W. Chan, J.W. Walker, W.C. Rhines, and D.R. Collins, A backside illuminated 400 x 400 charge-coupled device imager, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-23, 1225–1232 (1976).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 50.
    W.W. Anderson, Tunnel current limitations of narrow bandgap infrared charge coupled devices, Infrared Phys. 17, 147–164 (1977).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 51.
    M.E. Kim, Y. Taur, S.H. Shin, G. Bostrup, J.C. Kim, and D.T. Cheung, CCDs in epitaxial HgCdTe/CdTe heterostructure, Appl. Phys. Lett. 39, 336–338 (1981).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 52.
    Y.Z. Liu, R.J. Anderson, R.A. Milano, and M.J. Cohen, Effect of heterojunction spike on the quantum efficiency of an AlGaAs/GaAs heterojunction charge coupled device, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 967–969 (1982).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 53.
    I. Deyhimy, R.C. Eden, R.J. Anderson, and J.S. Harris Jr., A 500-MHz GaAs charge-coupled device, Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 151–153 (1980).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 54.
    M.D. Clark, C.L. Anderson, R.A. Juliens, and G.S. Kamath, Planar sealed-channel GaAs Schottky-barrier charge-coupled device, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-27, 1183–1188 (1980).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 55.
    U. Ablassmeier, W. Kellner, H. Herbst, and H. Kniepkamp, Three-phase GaAs Schottky-barrier CCD operated up to 100-MHz clock frequency, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-27, 1181–1183 (1981).ADSGoogle Scholar
  57. 56.
    M.R. Stiglitz and J.C. Sethares, Magnetostatic waves take over where SAWs leave off, Microwave J. 25(2), 18–111 (1982).ADSGoogle Scholar
  58. 57.
    D.B. Anderson, Integrated optical spectrum analyzer: an imminent chip, IEEE Spectrum 15(12), 22–29 (1978).Google Scholar
  59. 58.
    D.H. Pritchard, A CCD comb filter for color TV receiver picture enhancement, RCA Rev. 41 3–28 (1980).Google Scholar
  60. 59.
    R.C. Eden and I. Deyhimy, Applications of GaAs integrated circuits and charge-coupled devices for high-speed signal processing, Soc. Photo-I nstrum. Eng. 214, 39–47 (1980).Google Scholar
  61. 60.
    J.W.V. Storey, J.O. Straede, P.R. Jorden, D.J. Thorne, and J.V. Wall, A CCD image of the galactic centre, Nature 296, 333–334 (1982).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dieter K. Schroder
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Electrical and Computer EngineeringArizona State UniversityTempeUSA

Personalised recommendations