Advertisement

Realism and the Origin of the Genetic Code

  • Lawrence S. Dillon

Abstract

With the development of the proteinoid microsphere in the laboratories of Dr. Sidney W. Fox, whose own origins we honor in this book, a convincing model of preliving particles leading to an actual early protobiont has been created. Not only was this model originated in those laboratories but subsequently was perfected, through persistent experimental and constructionistic approaches, to the point where first generations--and even partial second generations--have been produced through self-replicatory processes (Fox, 1968, 1969). In fact, it would appear that little of major proportions remains to be elaborated further on this representation of a possible earliest stage in life’s origin on this earth, although a number of the preceding papers in this volume show the need for lesser details to be added.

Keywords

Genetic Code Abundant Amino Acid Proteinogenic Amino Acid Scrapie Agent Protein Polymerase 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bar-Nun, A., Bar-Nun, N., Bauer, S. H., and Sagan, C., 1970, Science, 168: 470.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Barrell, B. G., Anderson, S., Bankier, A. T., de Bruijn, M. H. L., Chen, E., Coulson, A. R., Drouin, J., Eperon, I. C., Nierlich, D. P., Roe, B. A., Sanger, F., Schreier, P. H., Smith, A. J. H., Stoden, R., and Young, I. G., 1980, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S., 77: 3164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Biebricher, C. K., Eigen, M., and Luce, R., 1981a, J. Mol. Biol., 148: 369.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Biebricher, C. K., Eigen, M., and Luce, R., 1981b, J. Mol. Biol., 148: 391.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bonitz, S. G., Berlani, R., Coruzzi, G., Li, M., Macino, G., Nobrega, F. G., Nobrega, M. P., Thalenfeld, B. E., and Tzagoloff, A., 1980, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S., 77: 3167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bonnet, J., and Ebel, J. P., 1972, Eur. J. Biochem., 31: 335.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bonnet, J., and Ebel, J. P., 1974, FEBS Lett., 39: 259.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bossard, A., and Toupance, G., 1981, in: “Origin of Life,” Y. Wolman, ed., pp. 93–100, D. Reidel, Dordrecht, Holland.Google Scholar
  9. Bresch, C., Niesert, U., and Harnasch, D., 1980, J. Theor. Biol., 85: 399.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Diener, T. O., McKinley, M. P., and Prusiner, S. B., 1982, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S., 79: 5220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dillon, L. S., 1973, Bot. Rev., 39: 301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dillon, L. S., 1978, “The Genetic Mechanism and the Origin of Life,” Plenum, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dillon, L. S., 1981, “Ultrastructure, Macromolecules, and Evolution,” Plenum, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dillon, L. S., 1983, “The Inconstant Gene,” Plenum, New York.Google Scholar
  15. Dose, K., and Rauchfuss, H., 1972, in: “Molecular Evolution: Prebiological and Biological,” D. L. Rohlfing, and A. I. Oparin, eds., pp. 199–217, Plenum, New York.Google Scholar
  16. Dyson, F. J., 1982, J. Mol. Evol., 18: 344.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Egami, F., 1981, Origins Life, 11: 197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Eigen, M., and Schuster, P., 1977, Naturwiss., 64: 541.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Eigen, M., and Schuster, P., 1978a, Naturwiss., 65: 7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Eigen, M., and Schuster, P., 1978b, Naturwiss., 65: 341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Eigen, M., and Schuster, P., 1979, “The Hypercycle: A Principle of Natural Self-Organization,” Springer, Berlin.Google Scholar
  22. J. P., Joshi, P. C., Edelson, E. H., and Lawless, J. G., J. Mol. Evol., 11: 293.Google Scholar
  23. Findley, A. M., Findley, G. L. and McGlynn, S. P., 1982, J. Theor. Biol., 97: 299.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Fox, S. W., 1968, BioSystems, 2: 235.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Fox, S. W., 1969, Naturwiss., 56: 1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Fox, S. W., 1978, in: “The Nature of Life,” W. H. Heidcamp, ed., pp. 23–92, University Park Press, Baltimore.Google Scholar
  27. Fox, S. W., 1980a, Naturwiss., 67: 378.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Fox, S. W., 1980b, Naturwiss., 67: 576.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Fox, S. W., 1981a, Int. J. Quantum Chem., QBS8: 441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Fox, S. W., 1981b, J. Chromatog., 215: 115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Fox, S. W., and Nakashima, T., 1980, BioSystems, 12: 155.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Fox, S. W., and Windsor, C. R., 1970, Science, 170: 984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Goldschmidt, R. B., 1940, “The Material Basis of Evolution,” Yale University Press, New Haven.Google Scholar
  34. Gross, H. J., and Riesner, D., 1980, Angew. Chem., 19: 231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Harada, K., and Fox, S. W., 1964, Nature, 201: 335.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hawker, J. R., and Ors, J., 1981, in: “Origin of Life,” Y. Wolman, ed., pp. 225–232, D. Reidel, Dordrecht, Holland.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hechman, J. E., Sarnoff, J., Alzner-De Weerd, B., Yin, S., and RajBhandary, U. L., 1980, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S., 77: 3159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Jukes, T. H., 1966, “Molecules and Evolution,” Columbia University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  39. Lawrence, F., 1973, Eur. J. Biochem., 40: 493.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Lawrence, F., Blanquet, S., Poiret, M., Robert-Gero, M., and Waller, J. P., 1973, Eur, J. Biochem., 36: 234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Lawrence, F., Shire, D. J., and Waller, J. P., 1974, Eur. J. Biochem., 41: 73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Li, M., and Tzagoloff, A., 1979, Cell, 18: 47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Lohrmann, R., 1982, J. Mol. Evol., 18: 185.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Macino, G., Coruzzi, G., Nobrega, F. G., Li, M., and Tzagoloff, A., 1979, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S., 76: 3784.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Matsuno, K., 1982, BioSystems, 15: 1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Melius, P., 1977, in: “Bioorganic Chemistry,” Vol. 3, pp. 123–136, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  47. Melius, P., and Sheng, J. Y. P., 1975, Bioorg. Chem., 4:385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Miller, S. L., 1953, Science, 117: 528.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Miller, S. L., and Van Trump, J. E., 1981, in: “Origin of Life,” Y. Wolman, ed., pp. 135–141, D. Reidel, Dordrecht, Holland.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Nakashima, T., and Fox, S. W., 1980, J. Mol. Evol., 15: 161.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Nakashima, T., and Fox, S. W., 1982, BioSystems, 14: 151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Orgel, L. E., 1972, Isr. J. Chem., 10: 287.Google Scholar
  53. Orgel, L. E.; 1977, in: “Organization and Expression of the Eukaryotic Genome,” E. M. Bradbury, and K. Javaherian, eds., pp. 499–504, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  54. Oro, J., 1980, MBL Lectures in Biology, Vol. 1, pp. 47–69.Google Scholar
  55. Prusiner, S. B., 1982, Science, 216: 136.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Prusiner, S. B., Groth, D. F., Cochran, S. P. Masiarz, F. R., McKinley, M. P., and Martinez, H. M., 1980a, Biochemistry, 19: 4883.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Prusiner, S. B., Groth, D. F., Cochran, S. P., McKinley, M. P., and Masiarz, F. R., 1980b, Biochemistry, 19: 4892.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Prusiner, S. B., McKinley, M. P., Groth, D. F., Bowman, K. A., Mock, N. I., Cochran, S. P., and Masiarz, F. R., 1981, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S., 78: 6675.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Rosmus, J., and Deyl, Z., 1971, Chromatogr. Rev., 13: 163.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Sanger, H. L., Klotz, G., Riesner, D., Gross, H. J., and Kleinschmidt, A. K., 1976, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S., 73: 3852.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Schwartz, A. W., and Goverde, M., 1982, J. Mol. Biol., 18: 351.Google Scholar
  62. Schwartz, A. W., Joosten, H., and Voet, A. B., 1982, BioSystems, 15: 191.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Subbaraman, A. S., Kazi, Z. A., Choughuley, A. S. U., and Chadha, M. S. 1980, Origins Life, 10: 343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Sumper, M., and Luce, R., 1974, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S., 72: 162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Voet, A. B., and Schwartz, A. W., 1981, in: “Origin of Life.” Y. Wolman, ed., pp. 217–223, D. Reidel, Dordrecht, Holland.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Voet, A. B., and Schwartz, A. W., 1982, Origins Life, 12: 45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. White, D. H., 1980, J. Mol. Evol., 16: 121.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. White, D. H., and Raab, M. S., 1982, J. Mol. Evol., 18: 207.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Young, I. G., and Anderson, S., 1980, Gene, 12: 257.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lawrence S. Dillon
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiologyTexas A & M UniversityCollege StationUSA

Personalised recommendations