Advertisement

Segregation of Germ-Line-Specific Antigens During Embryogenesis in Caenorhabditis Elegans

  • Susan Strome
  • William B. Wood

Abstract

Germ cells in a wide variety of invertebrate and vertebrate species contain distinctive cytoplasmic organelles that have been visualized by electron microscopy. The ubiliquity of such structures suggests that they play some role in germ-line determination or differentiation, or both. However, the nature and function of these structures remain unknown. We describe experiments with two types of immunologic probes, rabbit sera and mouse monoclonal antibodies, directed against cytoplasmic granules that are unique to germ-line cells in the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, and that may correspond to the germ-line-specific structures seen by electron microscopy in C. elegans embryos. The antibodies have been used to follow the granules, termed P granules, during the early embryonic cleavage stages and throughout larval and adult development. P granules become progressively localized to the germ-line precursor cells during early embryogenesis. We are using conditionally lethal maternal-effect mutations to study this localization process. In addition to providing a rapid assay for P granules in wild-type, mutant, and experimentally manipulated embryos, the antibodies also promise to be useful in biochemically characterizing the granules and in investigating their function.

Keywords

Germ Cell Polar Body Germ Plasm Nematode Caenorhabditis Elegans Immunofluorescence Image 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Beams, W.H. and Kessel, R.G. (1974). The problem of germ cell determinants. Inter. Rev. Cytol. 39:413–479.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bounoure, L. (1939). L’Origine des Cellules Reproductrices et la Probleme de la Ligne Germinale. Gauthier-Villars, Paris.Google Scholar
  3. Boveri, T. (1910). Uber die Tielung centrifugierter Eier von Ascaris megalocephala. Arch. Entwicklungsmechanik 30:101–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Brenner, S. (1974). The genetics of Caenorhabditis elegans. Genetics 77:71–94.Google Scholar
  5. Davidson, E.H. (1976). Gene Activity in Early Development, Chapter 7. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  6. Denich, K., Isnenghi, E., Cassada, R., and Schierenberg, E. (1983). Cell lineages and developmental defects of temperature-sensitive arrest mutants of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Dev. Biol. (in press).Google Scholar
  7. Deppe, U., Schierenberg, E., Cole, T., Krieg, C., Schmitt, D., Yoder, B., and von Ehrenstein, G. (1978). Cell lineages of the embryo of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 75:376–380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Eddy, E.M. (1975). Germ plasm and the differentiation of the germ cell line, G.II. Bourne and J.F. Danielli (eds.). Int. Rev. Cyt. 43:2290–280.Google Scholar
  9. Edgar, L. (1982). Control of spermatogenesis in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Ph.D. thesis, University of Colorado.Google Scholar
  10. Geigy, R. (1931). Action de l’ultra-violet sur le pole germinal dans l’oeuf de Drosophila melanogaster. Rev. Suisse Zool. 38:187–288.Google Scholar
  11. Hirsh, D., Oppenheim, D., and Klass, M. (1976). Development of the reproductive system of Caenorhabditis elegans. Dev. Biol. 49:200–219.Google Scholar
  12. Illmensee, K. (1976). Nuclear and cytoplasmic transplantation in Drosophila. Symposium on Insect Development, P. Lawrence (ed.). London.Google Scholar
  13. Illmensee, K. and Mahowald, A.P. (1974). Transplantation of posterior polar plasm in Drosophila. Induction of germ cells at the anterior pole of the egg. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 71:1016–1020.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Illmensee, K. and Mahowald, A.P. (1976). The autonomous function of germ plasm in a somatic region of the Drosophila egg. Exp. Cell Res. 97:127–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kohler, G. and Milstein, C. (1975). Continuous cultures of fused cells secreting antibody of predefined specificity. Nature 256:495–497.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Krieg, C., Cole, T., Deppe, U., Schierenberg, E., Schmitt, D., Yoder, B., and von Ehrenstein, G. (1978). The cellular anatomy of embryos of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans; analysis and reconstruction of serial section electron micrographs. Dev. Biol. 65:193–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Laufer, J.S. and von Ehrenstein, G. (1981). Nematode development after removal of egg cytoplasm: absence of localized unbound determinants. Science 211:402–405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Mahowald, A.P. (1968). Polar granules of Drosophila. Ultrastructural changes during early embryogenesis. J. Exp. Zool. 167:237–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Mahowald, A.P. (1971). Polar granules of Drosophila. The continuity of polar granules during the life cycle of Drosophila. J. Exp. Zool. 176:329–344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Mahowald, A.P. (1977). The germ plasm of Drosophila: an experimental system for the analysis of determination. Amer. Zool. 17:551–563.Google Scholar
  21. Mahowald, A.P., Illmensee, K., and Turner, F.R. (1976). Interspecific transplantation of polar plasm between Drosophila embryos. J. Cell Biol. 70:358–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Okada, M., Kleinman, I.A., and Schneiderman, H.A. (1974). Restoration of fertility in sterilized Drosophila eggs by transplantation of polar cytoplasm. Dev. Biol. 37:43–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Smith, L.D. (1966). The role of a “germinal plasm” in the formation of primordial germ cells in Rana pipiens. Dev. Biol. 14:330–347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Smith, L.D. and Williams, M.A. (1975). Germinal plasm and determination of primordial germ cells. The Developmental Biology of Reproduction, C.L. Market and J. Papaconstantinou (eds.), pp. 3–24. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  25. Strome, S. and Wood, W.B. (1982). Immunofluorescence visualization of germ-line-specific cytoplasmic granules in embryos, larvae, and adults of Caenorhabditis elegans. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 79:1558–1562.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Sulston, J., Schierenberg, E., White, J., Thomson, N., and von Ehrenstein, G. (1983). The embryonic cell lineage of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Dev. Biol. (submitted for publication).Google Scholar
  27. Wakahara, M. (1978). Induction of supernumerary primoridal germ cells by injecting vegetal pole cytoplasm into Xenopus eggs. J. Exp. Zool. 203:159–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ward, S. and Carrel, J.S. (1979). Fertilization and sperm competition in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Dev. Biol. 73:304–321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Warn, R. (1972). Manipulation of the pole plasm of Drosophila melanogaster. Acta Embryol. Exper. Suppl. 415–427.Google Scholar
  30. Warn, R. (1975). Restoration of the capacity to form pole cells in UV-irradiated Drosophila embryos. J. Embryol. Exp. Morph. 33: 1003–1011.Google Scholar
  31. Wilson, E.B. (1925). The Cell in Development and Heredity. McMillan, New York.Google Scholar
  32. Wolf, N., Hirsh, D., and Mcintosh, J.R. (1978). Spermatogenesis in males of the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. J. Ultrastruc. Res. 63:155–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Wolf, N., Priess, J., and Hirsh, D. (1983). Segregation of germ-line granules in early embryos of Caenorhabditis elegans: an electron microscopic analysis. J. Embryol. Exp. Morph. (in press).Google Scholar
  34. Wood, W.B., Heckt, R., Carr, S., Vanderslice, R., Wolf, N., and Hirsh, D. (1980). Parental effects and phenotypic characterization of mutations that affect early development in Caenorhabditis elegans. Dev. Biol. 74:446–469.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Susan Strome
    • 1
  • William B. Wood
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental BiologyUniversity of ColoradoBoulderUSA

Personalised recommendations