Advertisement

A Family of mRNAs Expressed in the Dorsal Ectoderm of Sea Urchin Embryos

  • William H. Klein
  • Lisa M. Spain
  • Angela L. Tyner
  • John Anstrom
  • Richard M. Showman
  • Clifford D. Carpenter
  • Elizabeth D. Eldon
  • Arthur M. Bruskin

Abstract

Several rationales are currently used for analyzing genes of potential importance during early development. The classical approach is mutational analysis. A wide variety of mutations in Drosophila (e.g., Nusslein-Vollard, 1979), C. elegans (e.g., Wood et al., 1980), amphibians (e.g., Malacinski and Brothers, 1974), mice (e.g., Bennett, 1980), and other organisms have profound affects on the developing embryo. Unfortunately in most cases, determining the actual function of the gene product in question is a difficult problem. Nevertheless, molecular studies of a few mutations, particularly the homoeiotic loci of Drosophila, have already advanced to the point where the genes and transcripts have been isolated and characterized (Marx, 1981).

Keywords

Translation Product Gastrula Stage Rabbit Reticulocyte Lysate Dorsal Ectoderm Pluteus Stage 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bennett, D. (1980). The T-complex in the mouse: an assessment after 50 years of study. The Harvey Lectures, Series 74:1–21.Google Scholar
  2. Bruskin, A.M., Bedard, P.A., Tyner, A.L., Showman, R.M., Brandhorst, B.P., and Klein, W.H. (1982). A family of proteins accumulating in ectoderm of sea urchin embryos specified by two related cDNA clones. Develop. Biol. 91:317–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bruskin, A.M., Tyner, A.L., Wells, D.E., Showman, R.M., and Klein, W.H. (1981). Accumulation in embryogenesis of five mRNAs enriched in the ectoderm of the sea urchin pluteus. Develop. Biol. 87:308–318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Carpenter, C.D., Bruskin, A.M., Spain, L.M., Eldon, E.D., and Klein, W.H. (1982). The 3’ untranslated regions of two related mRNAs contain an element highly repeated in the sea urchin genome. Nucleic Acids Res. 10:7829–7842.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Davidson, E.H. (1982). Evolutionary change in genomic regulatory organization: Speculations on the origins of novel biological structure. In “Evolution and Development,” J.T. Bonner (ed.), pp. 65–84. Dahlem Konferenzen, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York: Springer-Verlag.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Kemphues, K.J., Raff, R.A., Kaufman, T.C., and Raff, E.C. (1979). Mutation in a structural gene for a β-tubulin specific to testis in Drosophila melanogaster. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 76:3991–3995.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Lynn, D.A., Angerer, L.M., Bruskin, A.M., Klein, W.H., and Angerer, R.C. (1983). Localization of a family of mRNAs in a single cell type and its precursors in sea urchin embryos. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (in press).Google Scholar
  8. Malacinski, G.M. and Brothers, A.J. (1974). Mutant genes in the Mexican axolotl. Science 184:1142–1147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Marx, J.L. (1981). Genes that control development. Science 213:1485–1488.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. McClay, D.R. and Chambers, A.F. (1978). Identification of four classes of all surface antigens appearing at gastrulation in sea urchin embryos. Develop. Biol. 63:179–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. McKeown, M. and Firtel, R.A. (1981). Evidence for subfamilies of actin genes in Dictylostelium as determined by comparison of 3’ end sequences. J. Mol. Biol. 151:593–604.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Newrock, K.M., Cohen, L.H., Hendricks, M.B., Donnelly, R.J., and Weinberg, E.S. (1978). Stage specific mRNAs coding for subtypes of H2 and H2B histones in the sea urchin embryo. Cell 14:327–336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Nusslein-Volhard, C. (1979). Maternal effect mutations that alter the spatial coordinates of the embryo of Drosophila melanogaster. In “Determinants of Spatial Organization,” S. Subtenlny and I. Konigsberg (eds.), pp. 185–211. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  14. O’Farrel, P.H. (1975). High resolution two-dimensional electrophoresis of proteins. J. Biol. Chem. 250:4007–4021.Google Scholar
  15. Wood, W.B., Hecht, R., Carr, S., Vanderslice, R., Wolf, N., and Hirsh, D. (1980). Parental effects and phenotypic characterizations of mutations that affect early development in Caenorhabditis elegans. Develop. Biol. 74:469.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • William H. Klein
    • 1
  • Lisa M. Spain
    • 1
  • Angela L. Tyner
    • 1
  • John Anstrom
    • 1
  • Richard M. Showman
    • 1
  • Clifford D. Carpenter
    • 1
  • Elizabeth D. Eldon
    • 1
  • Arthur M. Bruskin
    • 1
  1. 1.Program in Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, Department of BiologyIndiana UniversityBloomingtonUSA

Personalised recommendations