For many years services for the mentally handicapped have, in Great Britain, as in other countries with similar problems, been based on hospitals for the mentally handicapped. Medical officers appointed to these hospitals were expected by the local authorities concerned to take a training in psychiatry. After 1948 and with the development of the National Health Service, senior medical officers working in the service were designated as consultant psychiatrists. At the present time they are unlikely to gain employment in this capacity unless they possess membership of the Royal College of Psychiatrists or, exceptionally, some equivalent qualification. Not all hospitals for the mentally handicapped are recognized by the College as providing suitable training for aspirant consultants.


Mental Retardation Residential Care Tuberous Sclerosis Fragile Site Fetal Alcohol Syndrome 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Association of the British Pharmaceutic Industry: Data Sheet Compendium. London, Datapharm Publications Ltd, 1981–1982, p. 548.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Baraitser, M.: Clinical genetics: Mental retardation. Hosp. Update. 6:1103–1112, 1980.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Baranyay, E.: Towards a Full Life. London, National Society for Mentally Handicapped Children and Adults, 1981.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Birch, H. G., Richardson, S. A., Baird, D., Horobin, G., and Illsley, R.: Mental Subnormality in the Community. Baltimore, Williams and Williams, 1970.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Blomquist, H. K., Gustavson, K. H., and Holmgren, G.: Mild mental retardation in children in a northern Swedish county. J. Ment. Defic. Res. 25:169–186, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    The right to live and the right to die. (Editorial): Br. Med. J. 283:569–570, 1981.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Dr. Leonard Arthur: His trial and its implications (Legal correspondent): Br. Med. J. 283:1340–1341, 1981.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bundey, S.: Disorders of muscle: Genetic counselling. Br. J. Hosp. Med. 17:342–349, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Chamberlain, G.: Raised blood pressure in pregnancy: The fetus in hypertension. Br. J. Hosp. Med. 26:127–133. 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Consumers’ Association: Sodium valproate reassessed. Drug Ther. Bull. 19:93–95, 1981.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Coulter, D. L., and Allen, R. J.: Pancreatitis associated with valproic acid therapy for epilepsy. Ann. Neurol. 7:92, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Daker, M. G., Chidiac, P., Fear, C. N., and Berry, A. C.: Fragile X, in a normal male: A cautionary tale. Lancet 1:780, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Dalgleish, M., and Matthews, R.: Residential facilities for mentally handicapped children: Evaluation of a developmental project in Sheffield. Health Trends 13:67–71, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Davison, B. C. C., Swift, P. N., Benson, P. F., and Studdy, J. D. Genetic Studies in Mental Subnormality. Ashford, Royal College of Psychiatrists, 1973.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    DeMyer, W.: The median cleft face syndrome. Neurology (Minneap) 17:961–971, 1967.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Department of Health and Social Security: Care in the Community. A Consultative Document on Moving Resources for Care in England. London, 1981.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Department of Health and Social Security, Home Office, Welsh Office, Lord Chancellor’s Department: Reform of Mental Health Legislation, London, Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, 1981 (Cmnd 8405).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Drillien, C. M., Jameson, S., and Wilkinson, E. M.: Studies in mental handicap. Part I. Prevalence and distribution of clinical type and severity of defect. Arch. Dis. Child. 41: 528–538, 1966.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Egger, J., and Brett, E. M.: Effects of sodium valproate in 100 children with special reference to weight. Br. Med. J. 283:577–581, 1981.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Elwood, J. H., and Darragh, P. M.: Prevalence of mongolism in Northern Ireland. J. Ment. Defic. Res. 25:157–160, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Felce, D.: The capital costs of alternative residential units for mentally handicapped people. Br. J. Psychiatry 139:230–237, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Gal, I.: Personal communication, 1981.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Gardner-Medwin, D.: Disorders of muscle: Children with genetic muscular disorders. Br. J. Hosp. Med. 17:314–340, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Gray, J.: Susan: A case history. World Med. 17:(No. 5) 28–30, 1981.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Gunn, J.: Reform of mental health legislation. Br. Med. J. 283:1487–1488, 1981.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Guttmacher, S., Lehmann, H., and Sabor, S.: Rogers vs. Okin: The public’s reaction. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 368:133–136, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hanson, J. W., and Smith, D. W.: The fetal hydantoin syndrome. J. Pediatr. 87:285–290, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Harvey, J., Judge, C., and Wiener, S.: Familial X-linked mental retardation with an X-chromosome abnormality. J. Med. Genet. 14:46–50, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Herbst, D. S.: Nonspecific X-linked mental retardation I. A review with information from 24 new families. Am. J. Med. Genet. 7:443–460, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Herbst, D. S., and Miller, J. R.: Nonspecific X-linked mental retardation II. The frequency in British Columbia. Am. J. Med. Genet. 7:461–469, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Innes, G., Kidd, C., and Ross, H. S.: Mental subnormality in North-East Scotland. Br. J. Psychiatry 114:35–41, 1968.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Jacky, P. B., and Dill, F. J.: Expression in fibroblast culture of the satellited X chromosome associated with familial sex-linked mental retardation. Hum. Genet. 53:267–269, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Jacobs, P. A., Glover, T. W., Mayer, M., Fox, P., Gerrard, J. W., Dunn, H. G., and Herbst, D. S.: X-linked mental retardation: A study of 7 families. Am. J. Med. Genet. 7:471–489, 1977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Jacobs, P., Melville, M., Ratcliffe, S., Keay, A. J., and Syme, J.: A cytogenetic survey of 11,680 new born infants. Ann. Hum. Genet. 37:359, 1974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Jenkins, E. C., Brown, W. T., Duncan, C. J., Brooks, J., Yishay, M. B., Giordano, F. M., and Nitowsky, H. M.: Feasbility of fragile X chromsome prenatal diagnosis demonstrated. Lancet: 1292, 1981.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Knott, C., Hamshaw-Thomas, A., and Reynolds, F.: Phenytoin—valproate interaction: Importance of saliva monitoring in epilepsy. Br. Med. J. 284:13–16, 1982.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Kushlick, A.: The prevalence of recognized mental subnormality of I.Q. under 50 among children in the South of England with reference to the demand for places of residential care, in Oster, J. (ed.): Proceedings of the International Copenhagen Congress for the Scientific Study of Mental Retardation 2, Copenhagen, Munksgaard, 1964, pp. 550–556.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Leversha, M. A., Webb, Q. C., and Pavey, S. M.: Chromosome banding required for studies on X-linked mental retardation. Lancet 1:49, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Lewontin, R. C.: Sleight of hand. Sciences. 21:23–26, 1981.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Lindsey, M. P., and Russell, C. M.: Mental handicap in the county of Cornwall: Prevalence and the use of services. J. Ment. Defic. Res. 25:77–87, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Lubs, H. A.: A marker X chromosome. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 21:231–244, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Marcovitch, H.: A nasty case that has established very little. World Med. 17 (No. 5): 25–27, 1981.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Martindale, A.: Report No. 11. Sheffield Case Register. Sheffield, Sheffield Area Health Authority, 1981.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    McDonald, D., and MacKay, D. N.: Mental subnormality in Northern Ireland. J. Ment. Defic. Res. 22:83–89, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Medical Research Council. Working Party on Amniocentesis: An assessment of the hazards of amniocentesis. Br. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 85: Suppl. 2, 1978.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Mulcahy, M.: Mental handicap—estimating the need. Paper read at the 6th World Congress of the International League of Societies for the Mentally Handicapped, Dublin, 1975.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Nolan, G. and Hackman, A.: Cleidocranial dysostosis: Psychological observation of two cases. Br. J. Psychiatry 116:543–544, 1970.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    O’Donnell, M. et al. After the Arthur case: Do we need a code of practice? World Med. 17 (No. 5):105–113, 1981.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Parsonage, M. J., and Caldwell, A. D. S. (eds.): The place of sodium valproate in the treatment of epilepsy. R. Soc. Med. Int. Cong. Sympos. Series 30., 1980.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Primrose, D. A.: Epiloia in twins: A problem in diagnosis and counselling. J. Ment. Defic. Res. 19:195–203, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Renpenning, H., Gerrard, J. W., Zaleski, W. A., and Tabata, T.: Familial sex-linked mental retardation. Canad. Med. Assoc. J. 87:954–956, 1962.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Robertson, N. R. C.: The wasted lives, in Who’s Holding the Baby Now? London, The Spastics Society, 1981.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Seton, C.: Down’s syndrome children: The painful decision. World Med. 16:17–18, 1981.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Sheffield Case Register: Report No. 9. Sheffield, Sheffield Area Health Authority, 1981.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Smith, D. W.: Recognisable Patterns of Human Malformation. Philadelphia, Saunders, 1970.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Smythe, T. The role of MIND in relation to psychiatry. Bull, R. Coll. Psychiatrists 5:140–143, 1981.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Social Services Committee: Perinatal and neonatal mortality. Second Report from the Social Services Committee 1979. London, Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, 1980.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Sutherland, G. R.: Fragile sites on human chromosomes: Demonstration of their dependance on the type of culture medium. Science 197:265–266, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Turner, G., Brookwell, R., Daniel, A., Selikowitz, M., and Zilibowitz, M.: Heterozygous expression of X-linked mental retardation and X-chromosome marker fra(X) (q27). N. Engl. J. Med. 303: 662–664, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Turner, G., Eastman, C., Casey, J., McLeay, A., Procopis, P., and Turner, B.: X-linked mental retardation associated with macro-orchidism. J. Med. Genet. 12:367–371, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Turner, G., Turner, B., and Collins, E.: Renpenning’s syndrome—X-linked retardation. Lancet 2:365–366, 1970.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Ugarte, M., Maties, M., and Ugarte, J. L.: The offspring of a Phenylketonuric couple. J. Ment. Defic. Res. 24:119–127, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Ware, S., and Millward-Sadler, G. H.: Acute liver disease, associated with sodium valproate. Lancet 2:1110–1113, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Wilson, J., and Carter, C.: Genetics of tuberose sclerosis. Lancet 2:340, 1978.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Woollam, D. H. M.: Alcohol and the safety of the unborn child. R. Soc. Health J. 101:241–244, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Zellweger, H., and Niedermeyer, E.: Central nervous system manifestations in childhood muscular dystrophy (CMD) I. Ann. Paediatr. 205, 25–42, 1965.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Brian H. Kirman
    • 1
  1. 1.Botley’s Park HospitalChertsey, SurreyEngland

Personalised recommendations