On the Molecular Structure of the Gramicidin Transmembrane Channel
The primary structure of Gramicidin A (GA) was determined by Sarges and Witkop (1964, 1965a,b) to be HCO-L · Val1-Gly2-L · Ala3-D · Leu4-L · Ala5-D · Val6-L · Val7-D · Val8-L · Trp9-D · Leu10-L · Trp11-D · Leu12-L · Trp13-D · Leu14-L · Trp15NH-CH2 CH2OH. The common analogs are Gramicidin B (GB), which is L-Phe11 GA, and Gramicidin C (GC), which is L · Tyr11 GA. Also, there is a variation in residue-1 which can occur as Ile1 in GA, GB, and GC. These structures were further confirmed by the solid phase syntheses of Fontana and Gross (1972) and of Noda and Gross (1972). The amino terminus (N) will also be referred to as the formyl end or head and the carboxyl terminus (C) will also be referred to as the ethanolamine end or tail. In single-stranded helical structures of Gramicidin, possible end-to-end associations will be referred to as head-to-head, head-to-tail, and tail-to-tail. In double-stranded structures, parallel and antiparallel associations will be indicated by the proximity of the formyl (HCO) and ethanolamine termini.
KeywordsCarbonyl Carbon Channel Structure Free Energy Profile Transmembrane Channel Gramicidin Channel
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