Neurochemistry of Invertebrates

  • Marilyn W. McCaman


This chapter attempts to cover some of the recent studies in invertebrates concerned with the biochemical properties of the “classical” neurotransmitters, ACh, 5-HT, DA, and GABA,* as well as some “putative” neurotransmitters, including glutamate and a few peptides. Such properties as distribution, synthesis and breakdown, uptake and transport, and isolation of receptors are discussed when information warrants. Detailed discussion of analytical procedures has been avoided, although it goes without saying that many of these studies could not have been carried out without sophisticated techniques for separation and detection. Information regarding specific methods that concerns sensitivity, specificity, reproducibility, etc. will have to be obtained from the original articles.


Biogenic Amine Nerve Cord Optic Lobe Ventral Nerve Cord Cerebral Ganglion 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Bullock, T. H., Orkand, R., and Grinnell, A. M., 1977, Introduction to the Nervous System, . H. Freeman, San Francisco.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bullock, T. H., and Horridge, G. A., 1965, Structure and Function in the Nervous System f Invertebrates, W. H. Freeman, San Francisco.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Meglitsch, P. A., 1972, Invertebrate Zoology, Oxford University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Gerschenfeld, H. M., 1973, Physiol. Rev. 53:1–119.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kandel, E. R., 1976, Cellular Basis of Behavior, W. H. Freeman, San Francisco.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Leake, L. D., and Walker, R. J., 1980, Invertebrate Neuropharmacology, Blackie, Glasgow.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cobb, J. L. S., and Pentreath, V. W., 1978, Prog. Neurobiol. 10:231–252.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kehoe, J. S., and Marder, E., 1976, Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. 16:245–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Liebeswar, G., Goldman, J. E., Koester, J., and Mayeri, E., 1975, J. Neurophysiol. 38:767–779.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ascher, P., and Kehoe, J. S., 1975, Handbook of Psychopharmacology, Volume 4 (L. L. Iversen, S. D. Iversen, and S. Snyder, eds.), pp. 265–310.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    McCaman, R. E., and McCaman, M. W., 1976, Biology of Cholinergic Function (A. M. Goldberg and I. Hanin, eds.), Raven Press, New York, pp. 485–513.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    McCaman, R. E., and Ono, J. K., 1982, Progress in Cholinergic Biology: Model Cholinergic Synapse (I. Hanin and A. M. Goldberg, eds.), Raven Press, New York, pp. 22–43.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Mansour, T. E., 1979, Science 205:462–469.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Martin, S. M., and Spencer, A. N., 1983, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 74C:1–14.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Solon, M. H., and Koopowitz, H., 1981, Marine Behav. Physiol. 7:331–343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Aisa, E., Principato, G. B., Biagioni, M., and Giovannini, E., 1982, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 71C:119–122.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Schwartz, J. H., 1974, Synaptic Transmission and Neuronal Interactions, Volume 28 (M. V. L. Bennett, ed.), Raven Press, New York, pp. 239–257.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Leake, L. D., Evans, T. G., and Walker, R. J., 1975, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 51C:205–213.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    McCaman, R. E., Weinreich, D., and Borys, H., 1973, J. Neurochem. 21:473–476.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    McCaman, R. E., and Stetzler, J., 1977, J. Neurochem. 28:669–671.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Goldberg, A.M., and McCaman, R. E., 1974, Choline and Acetylcholine: Handbook of Chemical Assay Methods (I. Hanin, ed.), Raven Press, New York, pp. 385–407.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Giller, E., and Schwartz, J. H., 1971, J. Neurophysiol. 34:93–107.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Giller, E., and Schwartz, J. H., 1971, J. Neurophysiol. 34:108–115.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Triestman, S. N., and Schwartz, J. H., 1977, J. Gen. Physiol. 69:725–741.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Tauc, L., Hoffmann, A., Tsuji, S., Hinzin, D. H., and Faille, L., 1974, Nature 250:496–498.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Tauc, L., 1977, Physiol. Rev. 46:521–593.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Israel, M., Dunant, Y., and Manaranche, R., 1979, Prog. Neurobiol. 13:237–275.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Boyne, A. F., 1978, Life Sci. 22:2057–2066.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Tauc, L., 1979, Biochem. Pharmacol. 27:3493–3498.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kelly, R. B., Deutsch, J. W., Carlson, S. S., and Wagner, J. A., 1979, Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 10:399–446.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Emson, P. C., and Fonnum, F., 1974, J. Neurochem. 22:1079–1088.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    McCaman, R. E., and Dewhurst, S. A., 1970, J. Neurochem. 17:1421–1426.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Prempeh, A. B. A., Prince, A. K., and Hide, E. G. J., 1972, Biochem. J. 129:991–994.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Chao, L.-P., 1980, J. Neurosci. Res. 5:85–115.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    McCaman, R. E., and Dewhurst, S. A., 1971, J. Neurochem. 18:1329–1335.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Dewhurst, S. A., 1972, J. Neurochem. 19:2217–2219.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Schwartz, J. H., Eisenstadt, M. L., and Cedar, H., 1975, J. Gen. Physiol. 65:255–273.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Eisenstadt, M. L., Triestman, S. N., and Schwartz, J. H., 1975, J. Gen. Physiol. 65:275–291.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Eisenstadt, M. L., and Schwartz, J. H., 1975, J. Gen. Physiol. 65:293–313.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Koike, H., Kandel, E. R., and Schwartz, J. H., 1974, J. Neurophysiol. 37:815–827.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Koike, H., Eisenstadt, M., and Schwartz, J. H., 1972, Brain Res. 37:152–159.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Triestman, S. N., and Schwartz, J. H., 1982, J. Gen. Physiol. 69:725–741.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Dennis, M. J., and Miledi, R., 1974, J. Physiol. (Lond.) 237:431–452.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Carew, J. J., Pinsker, H., Rubinson, K., and Kandel, E. R., 1974, J. Neurophysiol. 37:1020–1040.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Cohen, J. L., Weiss, K. R., and Kupfermann, I., 1978, J. Neurophysiol. 41:157–180.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Goldberg, D. J., and Schwartz, J. H., 1980, J. Physiol. (Lond.) 307:259–272.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Hanley, M. R., Cottrell, G. A., Emson, D. C., and Fonnum, F., 1974, Nature (New Biol.) 251:631–633.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Cottrell, G. A., 1977, Neuroscience 2:1–18.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Osborne, N. N., 1977, Nature 270:622–623.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Burnstock, G., 1976, Neuroscience 1:239–248.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Dowdall, M., and Simon, E. J., 1973, J. Neurochem. 21:969–982.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Tansy, E. M., 1979, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 64C:173–182.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Kehoe, J. S., 1972, J. Physiol. (Lond.) 225:85–114.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Kehoe, J. S., 1972, J. Physiol. (Lond.) 225:115–146.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Kehoe, J. S., 1972, J. Physiol. (Lond.) 225:147–172.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Kehoe, J. S., Sealock, R., and Bon, C., 1976, Brain Res. 107:527–540.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Shain, W., Greene, L. A., Carpenter, D. O., Sytkowski, J., and Vogel, Z., 1974, Brain Res. 72:225–240.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Parmentier, J., and Carpenter, D., 1976, Animal, Plant and Microbial Toxins (A. Ohsaka, K. Hayaishi, and Y. Sawai, eds.), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 179–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Ono, J. K., and Salvaterra, P. M., 1981, J. Neurosci. 1:259–270.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Morley, B. J., Kemp, G. E., and Salvaterra, P., 1979, Life Sci. 24:859–872.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Brown, D. A, 1979, Advances in Cytopharmacology, Volume 3 (B. Ceccarelli and F. Clementi, eds.), Raven Press, New York, pp. 225–230.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Gardner, C. R., 1981, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 68C:85–90.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Sargent, P. B., 1977, J. Neurophysiol. 40:453–460.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Wallace, B. G., and Gillon, J. W., 1982, J. Neurosci. 2:1108–1118.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Coggeshall, R. E., Dewhurst, S. A., Weinreich, D., and McCaman, R. E., 1972, J. Neurobiol. 3:259–265.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Wallace, B., 1981, Neurobiology of the Leech (K. J. Muller, J. G. Nicholls, and G. S. Stent, eds.), Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, New York, pp. 147–167.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Fitzpatrick-McElligott, S., and Stent, G., 1981, J. Neurosci. 1:901–907.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Stent, G., and Weisblat, D. A., 1982, Sci. Am. 246:136–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Florey, E., 1973, J. Comp. Physiol. 83:1–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Pittman, R. M., 1971, Comp. Gen. Pharmacol. 2:347–371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Barker, D. L., Herbert, E., Hildebrand, J. G., and Kravitz, E. A., 1972, J. Physiol. (Lond.) 226:205–229.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Hildebrand, J. G., Townsel, J. G., and Kravitz, E. A., 1974, J. Neurochem. 23:951–963.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Battelle, B. A., Kravitz, E. A., and Stieve, H., 1979, Experientia 35:778–780.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Newkirk, R. F., Maleque, M. A., and Townsel, J. G., 1980, Neuroscience 5:303–311.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Maxwell, G. D., Tait, J. F., and Hildebrand, J. G., 1978, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 61C:109–119.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Prescott, D. J., Hildebrand, J. G., Sanes, J. R., and Jewett, S., 1977, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 56C:77–84.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Emson, P. C., Burrows, M., and Fonnum, F., 1974, J. Neurobiol, 5:33–42.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Dewhurst, S. A., McCaman, R. E., and Kaplan, W. D., 1970, Biochem. Gen. 4:499–508.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Sanes, J. R., Prescott, D. J., and Hildebrand, J. G., 1977, Brain Res. 119:389–402.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Marder, E., 1976, J. Physiol. (Lond.) 257:63–86.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Futamachi, K. J., 1972, Science 175:1373–1374.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Kawagoe, R., Onodera, K., and Takeuchi, A., 1981, J. Physiol. (Lond.) 312:225–236.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Takeno, K., Hiromori, T., and Yanigiya, I., 1981, Insect Biochem. 11:527–535.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Breer, H., 1982, J. Neurobiol. 13:103–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Denburg, J. L., 1973, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 298:967–972.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Newkirk, R. F., Sukumar, R., Thomas, W. E., and Townsel, J. G., 1981, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 70C:177–184.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Emson, P., Malthe-Sorenssen, O., and Fonnum, F., 1974, J. Neurochem. 22:1089–1098.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Driskell, W. J., Weber, B. H., and Roberts, E., 1978, J. Neurochem. 30:1135–1141.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Slemmon, J. R., Salvaterra, P. M., Crawford, G. D., and Roberts, E., 1982, J. Biol. Chem. 257:3847–3852.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Crawford, G., Slemmon, J. R., and Salvaterra, P. M., 1982, J. Biol. Chem. 257:3853–3856.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Zingde, S., and Krishnan, K. S., 1980, Development and Neurobiology of Drosophila (O. Siddqi, P. Batu, L. M. Hall, and J. C. Hall, eds.), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 87–103.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Tripathi, R. L., Telford, J. N., and O’Brien, R. D., 1978, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 525:103–111.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Silver, L. H., and Prescott, D. J., 1982, J. Neurochem. 38:1709–1718.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Devonshire, A. L., 1975, Biochem. J. 149:463–469.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Greenspan, J. R., Finn, J. A., Jr., and Hall, H. C., 1980, J. Comp. Neurol. 189:741–774.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Dudai, Y., 1979, Trends Biochem. Sci. 4:40–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Salvaterra, P. M., and Foders, R. M., 1979, J. Neurochem. 32:1509–1517.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Mansour, N. A., Eldefrawi, M. E., and Eldefrawi, A. T., 1977, Biochemistry 16:4126–4132.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Harris, R., Cattell, K. J., and Donnellan, J. F., 1981, Insect Biochem. 11:371–385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Satelle, D. B., 1980, Receptors for Neurotransmitters, Hormones and Pheromones in Insects (L. M. Hall, J. G. Hildebrand, and D. B. Satelle, eds.), Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 71–124.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Jimenez, F., and Rudioff, E., 1978, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 535:505–517.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Schmidt-Nielsen, B. K., Gepner, J. I., Teng, N. H., and Hall, L. N., 1977, J. Neurochem. 29:1013–1029.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Hildebrand, J. G., Hall, L. M., and Osmond, B. C., 1979, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 76:499–503.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Dudai, Y., 1978, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 539:505–517.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Gepner, J. I., Hall, L. M., and Satelle, D. B., 1978, Nature 276:188–190.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Conti-Tronconi, B. M., and Raftery, M., 1982, Annu. Rev. Biochem. 51:491–530.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Lent, C. M., 1977, Prog. Neurobiol. 8:81–117.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Evans, P. D., 1980, Advances in Insect Physiology, Volume 15 (M. J. Berridge, J. E. Treherne, and V. B. Wigglesworth, eds.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 317–473.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Mazzanti, G., and Piccinelli, D., 1979, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 63C:215–219.Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Welsh, J. H., and Williams, L. D., 1970, J. Comp. Neurol. 138:103–116.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Bennett, J., and Beuding, E., 1971, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 39A:859–868.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Tomosky-Sykes, T., Jardine, I., Mueller, J. F., and Bueding, E., 1977, Anal. Biochem. 83:99–108.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Anya, A. O., 1973, Comp. Gen. Pharmacol. 4:149–156.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Horvitz, H. R., Chalfie, M., Trent, C., Sulston, J. E., and Evans, P. D., 1982, Science 216:1012–1014.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Tomosky, T. K., Bennett, J. L., and Bueding, E., 1974, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 190:260–271.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Audesirk, G., McCaman, R. E., and Willows, A. O. D., 1979, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 62C:87–91.Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Bennett, J., and Bueding, E., 1973, Mol. Pharmacol. 9:311–319.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Goh, S. L., and Davey, K. G., 1976, Tissue Cell 8:421–435.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Northrup, J. K., and Mansour, T. E., 1978, Mol. Pharmacol. 14:820–833.Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Juorio, A. V., and Killick, S. W., 1972, Comp. Gen. Pharmacol. 13:283–295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Sakharov, D. A., 1970, Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. 10:335–352.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Sakharov, D. A., 1976, Neurobiology of Invertebrates: Gastropod Brain (J. Salanki, ed.), Akademiai Kiado, Budapest, pp. 27–40.Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Stefano, G. B., and Aiello, E., 1975, Biol. Bull. 148:141–156.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Loker, J. E., Kerkut, G. A., and Walker, R. J., 1975, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 50A:443–452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Loker, J. E., Kerkut, G. A., and Walker, R. J., 1975, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 51C:83–90.Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Osborne, N. N., 1978, Biochemistry of Characterized Neurones (N. N. Osborne, ed.), Pergamon Press, Oxford, pp. 47–80.Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Weinreich, D., McCaman, M. W., McCaman, R. E., and Vaughn, J. E., 1973, J. Neurochem. 20:969–976.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Cottrell, G. A., 1974, J. Neurochem. 22:557–559.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Pentreath, V. W., and Cottrell, G. A., 1973, Z. Zellforsch. 143:21–35.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Gerschenfeld, H. M., and Paupardin-Tritsch, D., 1974, J. Physiol. (Lond.) 243:457–481.Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Weiss, K. R., Cohen, J., and Kupfermann, I., 1975, Brain Res. 99:381–386.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Granzow, B., and Rowell, C. H. F., 1981, J. Exp. Biol. 90:283–305.Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Kupfermann, I., Cohen, J. L., Mandelbaum, D. E., Schonberg, M., Susswein, A. J., and Weiss, K. R., 1979, Fed. Proc. 38:2095–2102.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Osborne, N. N., and Neuhoff, V., 1974, J. Neurochem. 22:363–371.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Smith, J. R., 1982, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 71C:57–61.Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    Hiripi, L., and Stefano, G. B., 1980, Life Sci. 27:1205–1209.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Marsden, C. A., 1976, Neurobiology of Invertebrates. Gastropod Brain (J. Salanki, ed.), Akademiai Kiado, Budapest, pp. 177–189.Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Eisenstadt, M., Goldman, J. E., Kandel, E. R., Koike, H., Koester, J., and Schwartz, H., 1973, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 70:3371–3375.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Weinreich, D., Dewhurst, S. A., and McCaman, R. E., 1972, J. Neurochem. 19:1125–1130.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Stefano, G. B., and Aiello, E., 1978, Experientia 34:749–750.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    White, D., and Marsden, J. R., 1978, Biol. Bull. 155:395–409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Stahl, W. L., Neuhoff, V., and Osborne, N. N., 1977, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 56C:13–18.Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    Burrell, D. E., and Stefano, G. B., 1981, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 70C:71–76.Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    Elekes, K., 1978, Neuroscience 3:48–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Goldman, J. E., and Schwartz, J. H., 1977, Brain Res. 136:77–88.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Schwartz, J. H., Shkolnik, L. J., and Goldberg, D. J., 1979, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 76:5967–5971.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Goldman, J. E., Kim, K. S., and Schwartz, J. H., 1976, J. Cell Biol. 70:304–318.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Schwartz, J. H., and Shkolnik, L. J., 1981, J. Neurosci. 1:606–619.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Goldman, J. E., and Schwartz, J. H., 1974, J. Physiol. (Lond.) 242:61–76.Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    Pentreath, V., 1976, J. Neurocytol. 5:43–61.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Barlow, J. J., Juorio, A. V., and Martin, R., 1974, J. Comp. Physiol. 89:105–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    York, B., and Twarog, B. M., 1973, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 44A:423–430.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Gerschenfeld, H. M., Hamon, M., and Paupardin-Tritsch, D. B., 1978, J. Physiol. (Lond.) 274:265–278.Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    Cedar, H., and Schwartz, J. H., 1971, J. Gen. Physiol. 60:570–587.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Gardner, C. R., and Cashin, C. H., 1975, Neuropharmacology 14:493–500.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Osborne, N. N., Briel, G., and Neuhoff, V., 1972, Experientia 28:1015–1018.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Robertson, H. A., and Osborne, N. N., 1979, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 64C:7–14.Google Scholar
  158. 158.
    McAdoo, D. J., and Coggeshall, R. E., 1976, J. Neurochem. 26:163–167.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    McCaman, M. W., Weinreich, D., and McCaman, R. E., 1973, Brain Res. 53:129–137.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    McAdoo, D. J., 1978, Biochemistry of Identified Neurons (N. N. Osborne, ed.), Pergamon Press, Oxford, pp. 19–45.Google Scholar
  161. 161.
    Lent, C. M., Ono, J. K., Keyser, K. T., and Karten, H. J., 1979, J. Neurochem. 32:1559–1563.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Coggeshall, R. E., 1972, Anat. Rec. 172:489–498.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Coggeshall, R. E., and Yakstra-Sauerland, B. A., 1974, J. Comp. Neurol. 156:459–470.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Smith, P. A., and Walker, R. J., 1975, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 51C:195–203.Google Scholar
  165. 165.
    Glover, J. C., and Kramer, A. P., 1982, Science 216:317–319.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Adolph, A. R., and Ehinger, B., 1975, Cell Tissue Res. 163:1–14.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Adolph, A. R., 1976, J. Gen. Physiol. 67:417–431.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Roberts, C. J., Radley, T., Poat, J. A., and Walker, R. F., 1983, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 74C:437–440.Google Scholar
  169. 169.
    Goldstone, M. W., and Cooke, I. M., 1971, Z. Zellforsch. Mikrosk. Anat. 116:7–19.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Cooke, I. M., and Goldstone, M. W., 1970, J. Exp. Biol. 53:651–668.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Livingstone, M. S., Schaeffer, S. F., and Kravitz, E. A., 1981, J. Neurobiol. 12:27–54.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Sullivan, R. E., 1978, Life Sci. 22:1429–1437.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Fingerman, M., Julian, W. E., Spirtes, M. A., and Kostrzewa, R. M., 1974, Comp. Gen. Pharmacol. 5:299–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Elofsson, R., Laxmyr, L., Rosengren, E., and Hansson, C., 1982, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 71C:195–201.Google Scholar
  175. 175.
    Rao, K. R., and Fingerman, M., 1975, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 51C:53–58.Google Scholar
  176. 176.
    Nassel, D. R., and Laxmyr, L., 1983, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 75C:259–265.Google Scholar
  177. 177.
    Elofsson, R., and Klemm, N., 1972, Z. Zellforsch. Mikrosk. Anat. 133:475–499.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Klemm, N., 1976, Prog. Neurobiol. 7:99–169.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Evans, P. D., Kravitz, E. A., Talamo, B. R., and Wallace, B. G., 1976, J. Physiol. (Lond.) 262:51–70.Google Scholar
  180. 180.
    Sullivan, R. E., Friend, B. J., and Barker, D. L., 1977, J. Neurobiol. 8:581–605.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Dewhurst, S. A., Crocker, S. G., Ikeda, K., and McCaman, R. E., 1972, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 43B:975–981.Google Scholar
  182. 182.
    Evans, P. H., and Fox, P. M., 1975, J. Insect Physiol. 21:343–355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Klemm, N., and Schneider, L., 1975, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 50C:177–182.Google Scholar
  184. 184.
    Berridge, M. J., 1972, J. Exp. Biol. 56:311–321.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Nathanson, J. A., 1977, Physiol. Rev. 57:157–256.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Harmar, A. J., and Horn, A. S., 1977, Mol. Pharmacol. 13:512–520.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Taylor, D. P., and Newburgh, R. W., 1976, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 61C:73–79.Google Scholar
  188. 188.
    Bodnaryk, R. P., 1982, Insect Biochem. 12:1–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Uzzan, A., and Dudai, Y., 1982, J. Neurochem. 38:1542–1550.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Reichelt, K. L., and Edminson, P. D., 1977, Peptides in Neurobiology (H. Gainer, ed.), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 171–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Osborae, N. N., 1976, Neurobiology of Invertebrates Gastropod Brain (J. Salanki, ed.), Akademia Kiado, Budapest, pp. 141–161.Google Scholar
  192. 192.
    Kerkut, G. A., 1973, Br. Med. Bull. 29:100–104.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Gardner, C. R., and Walker, R. J., 1982, Prog. Neurobiol. 18:81–120.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Murdock, L. L., 1971, Comp. Gen. Pharmacol. 2:254–274.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Elofsson, R., Falck, B., Lindvall, O., and Myhrberg, H., 1977, Cell Tissue Res. 182:525–536.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Lenicque, P. M., Toneby, M. I., and Doumenc, D., 1977, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 56C:31–34.Google Scholar
  197. 197.
    Gianutsos, G., and Bennett, J. L., 1977, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 58C:157–159.Google Scholar
  198. 198.
    Sulston, J., Dew, M., and Brenner, H., 1975, J. Comp. Neurol. 163:215–226.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Carpenter, D. O., Breese, G., Schanberg, S., and Kopin, I., 1971, Intern. J. Neurosci. 2:49–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Juorio, A. V., and Barlow, J. J., 1974, Comp. Gen. Pharmacol. 5:281–289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Powell, B., and Cottrell, G. A., 1974, J. Neurochem. 22:605–606.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    McCaman, M. W., Ono, J. K., and McCaman, R. E., 1979, J. Neurochem. 32:1111–1113.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Manokhina, M. S., and Kuzmina, L. V., 1971, J. Evol. Biochem. Physiol. 7:296–301.Google Scholar
  204. 204.
    Guthrie, P. B., Neuhoff, V., and Osborne, N. N., 1975, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 52C:109–111.Google Scholar
  205. 205.
    Osborne, N. N., Priggemeier, E., and Neuhoff, V., 1975, Brain Res. 90:261–271.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Myers, P. R., and Sweeney, D. C., 1972, Comp. Gen. Pharmacol. 3:277–282.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Guthrie, P. B., Neuhoff, V., and Osborne, N. N., 1975, Experientia, 31:775–776.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    McCaman, M. W., McCaman, R. E., and Stetzier, J., 1979, Anal. Biochem. 95:175–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Myers, P. R., 1974, Tissue Cell 6:49–64.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Hiripi, L. and S.-Rozsa, K., 1973, J. Insect Physiol. 19:1482–1485.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    Stefano, G. B., Catapane, E. J., and Aiello, E., 1976, Science 194:539–541.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    Brown, M., Burrell, D. E., Stefano, G. B., 1981, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 70C:215–221.Google Scholar
  213. 213.
    Pentreath, V. W., and Berry, M. S., 1975, J. Neurocytol. 4:249–260.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    Ascher, P., 1972, J. Physiol. (Lond.) 225:173–209.Google Scholar
  215. 215.
    Osborne, N. N., and Neuhoff, V., 1979, J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 31:481–492.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. 216.
    Kream, R. M., Zukin, R. S., and Stefano, G. B., 1980, J. Biol. Chem. 255:9218–9224.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. 217.
    Stefano, G. B., Hall, B., Makman, M. H., and Duorkin, B., 1981, Science 213:928–930.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. 218.
    Corelli, V., Memo, M., Spano, P. F., and Trabucchi, M., 1981, Neuroscience 6:2077–2079.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. 219.
    Lin, S., and Cohen, H. P., 1973, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 458:249–263.Google Scholar
  220. 220.
    Meyer, W., and Jehnen, R., 1980, J. Morphol. 64:69–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. 221.
    Osborne, N. N., and Dando, D., 1970, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 32:327–331.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. 222.
    Kushner, P. D., and Maynard, E. A., 1977, Brain Res. 129:13–28.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. 223.
    Aramant, R., and Elofsson, R., 1976, Cell Tissue Res. 166:1–24.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. 224.
    Aramant, R., 1980, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 660:29–36.Google Scholar
  225. 225.
    O’Connor, E. F., Watson, W. H. III, and Wyse, G. A., 1982, J. Neurobiol. 13:49–60.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. 226.
    Richter, V. D., and Reutsche, E., 1977, Acta Histochem. 60:304–311.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. 227.
    Myhrberg, H. E., Elofsson, R., Aramant, R., Klemm, N., and Laxmyr, L., 1979, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 62C: 141–150.Google Scholar
  228. 228.
    Nestler, C., Brown, A., and Wheeler, A. P., 1981, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 69C:53–60.Google Scholar
  229. 229.
    Barker, D. L., Kushner, P. D., and Hooper, N. K., 1979, Brain Res. 161:99–113.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. 230.
    Bjorklund, A., Falck, B., and Klemm, N., 1970, J. Insect. Physiol. 16:1147–1154.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. 231.
    Taylor, D. P., and Newburgh, R. W., 1979, Insect Biochem. 9:265–272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. 232.
    Bodnaryk, R. P., 1979, Insect Biochem. 9:155–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. 233.
    Cottrell, G. A., Abernathy, K. B., and Barrand, M. A., 1979, Neuroscience 4:685–689.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. 234.
    McCaman, M. W., McCaman, R. E., and Lees, G. L., 1972, Anal. Biochem. 45:242–252.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  235. 235.
    Chou, T. C., Bennett, J. L., and Beuding, E., 1972, Int. J. Parasitol. 58:1098–1102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. 236.
    Keenan, L., and Koopowitz, H., 1981, Science 214:1151–1152.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  237. 237.
    Keenan, L., and Koopowitz, H., 1982, J. Neurobiol. 13:9–21.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. 238.
    Mermel, L., Guchwait, R. B., Bourgeois, J. G., and Bueding, E., 1981, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 69C:227–234.Google Scholar
  239. 239.
    Juorio, A. V., 1971, J. Physiol. (Lond.) 216:213–226.Google Scholar
  240. 240.
    Osborne, N. N., and Cottrell, G. A., 1970, Comp. Gen. Pharmacol. 1:1–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  241. 241.
    Stone, B. F., Binnington, K. C., and Neish, A. L., 1978, Experientia 34:1173–1174.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. 242.
    Juorio, A. V., and Barlow, J. J., 1973, Experientia 29:943–945.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. 243.
    Maxwell, G. D., Moore, M. M., and Hildebrand, J. G., 1980, Insect Biochem. 10:657–665.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. 244.
    Pollard, H. B., Backer, J. L., Bohr, W. A., and Dowdale, M. J., 1975, Brain Res. 85:23–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. 245.
    Evans, P. D., 1978, J. Neurochem. 30:1015–1022.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  246. 246.
    Hanumante, H., and Fingerman, M., 1981, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 70C:27–34.Google Scholar
  247. 247.
    Axelrod, J., and Saavedra, J. M., 1977, Nature 265:501–504.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  248. 248.
    Robertson, H. A., and Juorio, A. V., 1976, Int. Rev. Neurobiol. 19:173–224.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  249. 249.
    Harmar, A. J., 1980, Noncatecholic Phenylethylamines (A. Mosnaim and M. Wolf, eds.), Marcel Dekker, New York, pp. 97–150.Google Scholar
  250. 250.
    Talamo, B. R., 1980, Noncatecholic Phenylethylamines (A. Mosnaim and M. Wolf, eds.), Marcel Dekker, New York, pp. 261–292.Google Scholar
  251. 251.
    Evans, P. D., 1978, J. Neurochem. 30:1009–1013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  252. 252.
    Evans, P. D., Talamo, B. R., and Kravitz, E. A., 1975, Brain Res. 90:340–347.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  253. 253.
    Evans, P. D., and O’Shea, M., 1978, J. Exp. Biol. 73:235–260.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  254. 254.
    Batelle, B. A., Evans, J. A., and Chamberlain, S. C., 1982, Science 216:1250–1252.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  255. 255.
    Molinoff, P. B., Landsberg, L., and Axelrod, J. P., 1969, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 179:253–261.Google Scholar
  256. 256.
    Saavedra, J. M., Brownstein, M. J., Carpenter, D. O., and Axelrod, J., 1974, Science 185:364–365.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  257. 257.
    Dougan, D. F. H., Duffield, P. H., Wade, D. N., and Duffield, A. M., 1977, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 70C:277–280.Google Scholar
  258. 258.
    McCaman, M. W., and McCaman, R. E., 1978, Brain Res. 141:347–352.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  259. 259.
    Mell, L. D., Jr., and Carpenter, D. O., 1980, Neurochem. Res. 5:1089–1096.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  260. 260.
    Starratt, A. N., and Bodnaryk, R. P., 1981, Insect Biochem. 11:645–648.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  261. 261.
    Chalfie, M., and Sulston, J., 1981, Dev. Biol. 82:358–363.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  262. 262.
    Juorio, A. V., and Molinoff, P. B., 1974, J. Neurochem. 22:271–280.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  263. 263.
    Dudai, Y., and Svi, S., 1982, J. Neurochem. 38:1551–1558.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  264. 264.
    Walker, R. J., Ramage, A. G., and Woodruff, G. N., 1974, Experientia 30:11–13.Google Scholar
  265. 265.
    McCaman, M. W., 1980, Noncatecholic Phenylethylamines (A. Mosnaim and M. Wolf, eds.), Marcel Dekker, New York, pp. 193–201.Google Scholar
  266. 266.
    Farnham, P. J., Novak, R. A., and McAdoo, D. J., 1978, J. Neurochem. 30:1173–1175.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  267. 267.
    Hayashi, S., Murdock, L. L., and Florey, E., 1977, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 58C:183–191.Google Scholar
  268. 268.
    Levitan, I. B., and Barondes, S. H., 1974, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 71:1145–1148.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  269. 269.
    Levitan, I. B., 1979, The Neurosciences. Fourth Study Program, (F. O. Schmitt and F. G. Worden, ed.), MIT Press, Cambridge, pp. 1043–1055.Google Scholar
  270. 270.
    Nathanson, J. A., 1976, Trace Amines and the Brain (E. Usdin and S. Snyder, eds.), Marcel Dekker, New York, pp. 161–190.Google Scholar
  271. 271.
    Carpenter, D. O., and Gaubatz, G. L., 1974, Nature 252:483–485.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  272. 272.
    Batta, S., Walker, R. J., and Woodruff, G. N., 1979, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 64C:43–51.Google Scholar
  273. 273.
    Webb, R. A., and Orchard, I., 1980, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 67C:135–140.Google Scholar
  274. 274.
    Webb, R. A., and Orchard, I., 1981, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 70C:201–207.Google Scholar
  275. 275.
    Robertson, H. A., and Osborne, N. N., 1979, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 64C:7–14.Google Scholar
  276. 276.
    Wallace, B. G., Talamo, B. R., Evans, P. D., and Kravitz, E. A., 1974, Brain Res. 74:349–355.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  277. 277.
    Robertson, H. A., and Carlson, A. D., 1976, J. Exp. Zool. 195:159–164.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  278. 278.
    David, J. C., and Lafon-Cazol, M., 1979, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 64C:161–164.Google Scholar
  279. 279.
    Hoyle, G., 1975, J. Exp. Zool. 193:425–431.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  280. 280.
    Evans, P. D., and O’Shea, M., 1977, Nature 270:257–259.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  281. 281.
    Dymond, G. R., and Evans, P. D., 1979, Insect Biochem. 9:535–545.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  282. 282.
    Goodman, C. S., O’Shea, M., McCaman, R. E., and Spitzer, N. C., 1979, Science 204:1219–1222.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  283. 283.
    Goodman, C., Bate, M., and Spitzer, N. C., 1981, J. Neurosci. 1:94–102.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  284. 284.
    Bodnaryk, R. P., 1980, Insect Biochem. 10:169–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  285. 285.
    Kennedy, M. B., 1978, J. Neurochem. 30:315–320.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  286. 286.
    Kennedy, M. B., 1980, Soc. Neurosci. Ahstr. 3:252.Google Scholar
  287. 287.
    Roberts, C. J., and Walker, R. J., 1978, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 69C:301–306.Google Scholar
  288. 288.
    Battelle, B. A., and Kravitz, E. A., 1978, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 205:438–448.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  289. 289.
    Florey, E., and Rathmeyer, M., 1978, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 61C:229–237.Google Scholar
  290. 290.
    Nathanson, J. A., 1980, Science 203:65–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  291. 291.
    Atkinson, P. W., Herman, W. S., and Sheppard, J. R., 1977, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 58C:107–110.Google Scholar
  292. 292.
    Hollingworth, R. M., and Murdock, L. L., 1980, Science 208:74–76.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  293. 293.
    Nathanson, J. A., and Hunnicutt, E. J., 1981, Mol. Pharmacol. 20:68–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  294. 294.
    Stuart, A. E., Hudspeth, A. S., and Hall, Z. W., 1974, Cell Tissue Res. 153:55–69.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  295. 295.
    Osborne, N., Neuhoff, V., Ewers, E., and Robertson, H. A., 1979, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 63C:209–213.Google Scholar
  296. 296.
    Juorio, A. V., and Robertson, H., 1977, J. Neurochem. 28:573–579.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  297. 297.
    Weinreich, D., 1976, Neurobiology of Invertebrates. Gastropoda Brain (J. Salanki, ed.), Akademiai Kiado, Budapest, pp. 191–206.Google Scholar
  298. 298.
    Weinreich, D., 1978, Biochemistry of Characterized Neurons (N. N. Osborne, ed.), Pergamon Press, Oxford, pp. 153–175.Google Scholar
  299. 299.
    Weinreich, D., Weiner, C., and McCaman, R. E., 1975, Brain Res. 84:341–345.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  300. 300.
    Ono, J. K., and McCaman, R. E., 1980, Neuroscience 5:835–840.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  301. 301.
    Turner, J. D., and Cottrell, G. A., 1977, Nature 267:447–448.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  302. 302.
    Osborne, N. N., Wolter, K. D., and Neuhoff, V., 1979, Biochem. Pharmacol. 28:2799–2805.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  303. 303.
    Weinreich, D., 1977, Nature 267:854–856.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  304. 304.
    McCaman, R. E., and McKenna, D., 1978, Brain Res. 141:165–171.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  305. 305.
    Gruol, D. L., and Weinreich, D., 1979, Brain Res. 162:281–301.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  306. 306.
    Weinreich, D., and Yu, Y. T., 1977, J. Neurochem. 28:361–370.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  307. 307.
    Das, N. P., Lim, H. S., and Teh, Y. F., 1971, Comp. Gen. Pharmacol. 2:473–475.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  308. 308.
    Turner, J. D., Powell, B., and Cottrell, G. A., 1980, J. Neurocytol. 9:1–14.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  309. 309.
    Gotoh, H., and Schwartz, J. H., 1982, Brain Res. 242:87–98.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  310. 310.
    Weinreich, D., 1979, J. Neurochem. 32:363–369.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  311. 311.
    Carpenter, D. O., and Gaubatz, G. L., 1975, Nature 254:343–344.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  312. 312.
    Bailey, C. H., Chen, M. C., Weiss, K. R., and Kupfermann, I., 1982, Brain Res. 238:205–210.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  313. 313.
    Roseghini, M., and Ramorino, L. M., 1970, J. Neurochem. 17:489–492.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  314. 314.
    Boulton, A. A., 1976, Adv. Biochem. Psychopharmacol. 15:57–67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  315. 315.
    Edward, D. J., and Antelman, S. M., 1980, Non-Catecholic Phenylethylamines, Part I. Phenylethylamine s, Marcel Dekker, New York, pp. 21–46.Google Scholar
  316. 316.
    Axelrod, J., Saavedra, J. M., and Usdin, E., Trace Amines and the Brain (E. Usdin and M. Sandler, eds.), Marcel Dekker, New York, pp. 1–20.Google Scholar
  317. 317.
    Duffield, P. H., Dougan, D. F. H., and Duffield, D. M., 1981, Biomed. Mass Spectrom. 8:170–174.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  318. 318.
    Juorio, A. V., and Philips, S. R., 1975, Brain Res. 83:180–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  319. 319.
    Vaughn, P. F. T., and Neuhoff, V., 1976, Brain Res. 117:175–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  320. 320.
    Evans, P. D., 1978, Trends Neurosci. 1:154–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  321. 321.
    Saavedra, J. M., Ribas, J., Swann, J., and Carpenter, D. O., 1977, Science 195:1004–1006.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  322. 322.
    Osborne, N. N., 1973, Br. J. Pharmacol. 48:546–549.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  323. 323.
    Osborne, N. N., 1979, Trends Neurosci. 2:73–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  324. 324.
    Giacobini, E., 1976, Adv. Biochem. Psychopharm. 15:17–56.Google Scholar
  325. 325.
    Dolezalova, H., Giacobini, E., and Stepita-Klauco, M., 1973, Intern. J. Neurosci. 5:53–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  326. 326.
    Manen, C., and Russell, D. H., 1973. In: Polyamines in Normal and Neoplastic Growth (D. H. Russell, ed.), Raven Press, New York, pp. 23–48.Google Scholar
  327. 327.
    Gould, R. M., and Cottrell, B. A., 1974, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 48B:591–591.Google Scholar
  328. 328.
    Kremzner, L. R., and Ambron, R. T., 1982, J. Neurochem. 38:1719–1727.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  329. 329.
    Dolezalova, H., Stepita-Klauco, M., and Seiler, N., 1972, Brain Res. 67:349–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  330. 330.
    Wu, P. H., Baker, G. B., and Henwood, R. W., 1980, Non-Catecholic Phenylethylamines, Part I (A. Mosnaim and M. Wolf, eds.), Marcel Dekker, New York, pp. 307–340.Google Scholar
  331. 331.
    Sabelli, H. C., Borison, R. L., Diamond, B. I., May, J., and Havdala, H. S., 1980, NonCatecholic Phenylethylamines, Part I (A. Mosnaim and M. Wolf, eds.), Marcel Dekker, New York, pp. 345–376.Google Scholar
  332. 332.
    Kravitz, E. A., Slater, C. R., Takahashi, K., Bownds, M. D., and Grossfeld, R. M., 1970, Excitatory Spnaptic Mechanisms (P. Andersen, and J. K. Jansen, eds.), Universitet Forlaget, Oslo, pp. 85–93.Google Scholar
  333. 333.
    Kerkut, G. A., Ralph, K., Walton, R. J., Woodruff, G., and Woods, R., 1970, Excitatory Synaptic Mechanisms (P. Andersen and J. K. S. Jansen, eds.), Universitet Forlaget, Oslo, pp. 94–108.Google Scholar
  334. 334.
    Shinozaki, H., 1980, Prog. Neurobiol. 14:121–155.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  335. 335.
    Nistri, A., and Constanti, A., 1979, Prog. Neurobiol. 13:117–235.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  336. 336.
    Evans, P. D., 1973, J. Neurochem. 21:11–17.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  337. 337.
    Usherwood, P., 1978, Adv. Comp. Physiol. Biochem. 7:225–309.Google Scholar
  338. 338.
    Shank, R. P., and Graham, L. T., Jr., 1978, Adv. Neurochem. 3:165–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  339. 339.
    Johnson, L., 1972, Brain Res. 37:1–19.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  340. 340.
    Takeuchi, A., Onodera, K., and Kawagoe, R., 1981, Adv. Biochem. Psychopharmacol. 29:365–368.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  341. 341.
    Florey, E., and Rathmayer, M., 1981, Adv. Biochem. Psychopharmacol. 29:351–380.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  342. 342.
    Constanti, A., and Nistri, A., 1979, Br. J. Pharmacol. 65:287–301.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  343. 343.
    Jan, L. Y., and Jan, Y. N., 1976, J. Physiol. (Lond). 262:215–236.Google Scholar
  344. 344.
    Hertz, L., 1979, Prog. Neurobiol. 13:277–323.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  345. 345.
    Lin, S., and Cohen, H. P., 1973, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 45B:249–263.Google Scholar
  346. 346.
    McBride, W. J., Shank, R. P., Freeman, A. R., and Aprison, M. H., 1974, Life Sci. 14:1109–1120.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  347. 347.
    Iliffe, T. M., McAdoo, D. J., Beyer, C. B., and Haber, B., 1977, J. Neurochem. 28:1037–1042.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  348. 348.
    VandenBerg, C. J., Matheson, D. F., Ronda, G., Reijnierse, G., Blokhius, G., Kroon, M., Clarke, D. D., and Garfinkel, D., 1978, Metabolic Compartmentation and Neurotransmission (S. Berl, J. Davison, and D. Schneider, eds.), Plenum Press, New York pp. 516–543.Google Scholar
  349. 349.
    DeFeudis, F. V., 1979, Int. Rev. Neurobiol. 21:129–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  350. 350.
    Osborne, N. N., 1972, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 43B:579–585.Google Scholar
  351. 351.
    Zeman, G. H., and Carpenter, D. O., 1975, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 52C:23–26.Google Scholar
  352. 352.
    Borys, H., Weinreich, D., and McCaman, R. E., 1973, J. Neurochem. 21:1345–1351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  353. 353.
    Shank, R. P., Freeman, A. R., McBride, W. J., and Aprison, M., Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 50C:127–131.Google Scholar
  354. 354.
    D’Aniello, A., and Guiditta, A., 1977, J. Neurochem. 29:1053–1057.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  355. 355.
    Jost, J., Cain, H., and Marsden, J. R., 1981, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 68C:43–47.Google Scholar
  356. 356.
    Sczepaniak, A. C., and Cottrell, G. A., 1973, Nature 241:62–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  357. 357.
    Lowagie, C., and Gerschenfeld, H., 1973, Nature 248:533–535.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  358. 358.
    Yamamoto, N., and Washio, H., 1979, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 63C:75–80.Google Scholar
  359. 359.
    Atwood, H. L., 1976, Prog. Neurobiol. 7:291–391.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  360. 360.
    Phillis, J. W., and Wu, K. S., 1981, Prog. Neurobiol. 16:187–239.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  361. 361.
    Wang, L. D. L., and Boyarsky, C. C., 1979, Life Sci. 24:1011–1014.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  362. 362.
    Levitan, I. B., and Benson, J. A., 1981, Trends Neurosci. 4:574–578.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  363. 363.
    Yarowsky, P. J., and Carpenter, D. O., 1976, Nature 192:807–809.Google Scholar
  364. 364.
    Meyer, W., Poehling, H. M., and Neuhoff, V., 1980, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 67C:83–86.Google Scholar
  365. 365.
    Reinecke, M., 1977, Cell Tissue Res. 169:361–382.Google Scholar
  366. 366.
    Faeder, I. R., Matthews, J. A., and Salpeter, M. M., 1974, Brain Res. 80:53–70.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  367. 367.
    Crawford, A. C., and McBurney, R. N., 1977, J. Physiol. (Lond.) 268:711–729.Google Scholar
  368. 368.
    Botham, R. P., Beadle, D. J., Hart, R. J., Potter, C., and Wilson, R. G., 1979, Cell Tissue Res. 203:379–386.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  369. 369.
    Daoud, A., and Miller, R., 1976, J. Neurochem. 26:119–123.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  370. 370.
    Fiszer de Plazas, S., and deRobertis, E., 1974, J. Neurochem. 23:1115–1120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  371. 371.
    Cull-Candy, S. G., James, R. W., and Lunt, G. G., 1976, Nature (New Biol.) 246:62–64.Google Scholar
  372. 372.
    Takeuchi, A., and Takeuchi, N., 1972, Adv. Biophys. 3:45–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  373. 373.
    Olsen, R. W., 1976, GABA in Nervous System Function (E. Roberts, T. N. Chase, and D. B. Tower, eds.), Raven Press, New York, pp. 287–304.Google Scholar
  374. 374.
    Johnston, G. A. R., 1978, Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 18:269–289.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  375. 375.
    Takeuchi, A., and Takeuchi, N., 1975, Neuropharmacology 14:627–634.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  376. 376.
    Yarowsky, P., and Carpenter, D. O., 1978, J. Neurophysiol. 41:531–541.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  377. 377.
    James, V. A., Roberts, C. J., and Walker, R. J., 1982, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 71C:229–237.Google Scholar
  378. 378.
    Usherwood, P., Atwood, H., Orkand, P. M., and Kravitz, E. A., 1971, J. Cell Biol. 49:73–89.Google Scholar
  379. 379.
    Osborne, N. N., 1971, Comp. Gen. Pharmacol. 2:433–438.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  380. 380.
    Kuroda, Y., and Okada, Y., 1977, Experientia 33:1623–1625.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  381. 381.
    McCaman, M. W., Colby, B. N., and McCaman, R. E., 1979, J. Neurochem. 33:967–971.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  382. 382.
    Cottrell, G. A., 1974, J. Neurochem. 22:557–559.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  383. 383.
    Otsuka, M., Kravitz, E. A., and Potter, D. D., 1967, J. Neurophysiol. 30:725–752.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  384. 384.
    McBride, W., Freeman, A. R., Graham, L. T., and Aprison, M. H., 1975. J. Neurobiol. 6:321–328.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  385. 385.
    Molinoff, P. B., and Kravitz, E. A., 1968, J. Neurochem. 15:391–409.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  386. 386.
    Hall, Z. W., Bownds, M. D., and Kravitz, E. A., 1970, J. Cell Biol. 46:290–299.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  387. 387.
    Fox, P. M., and Larson, J. R., 1972, J. Insect Physiol. 18:439–457.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  388. 388.
    Baxter, C. F., and Torralba, G. F., 1975, Brain Res. 84:383–397.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  389. 389.
    Koidl, B., 1974, J. Comp. Physiol. 94:49–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  390. 390.
    Martin, D. L., 1976, GABA in Nervous System Function (E. Roberts, T. N. Chase, and D. Tower, eds.), Raven Press, New York, pp. 347–386.Google Scholar
  391. 391.
    Horvitz, I. S., and Orkand, R. K., 1980, J. Neurobiol. 11:447–458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  392. 392.
    Frontali, N., and Pierantini, R., 1973, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 44A:1369–1372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  393. 393.
    Olsen, R. W., 1982, Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 22:245–277.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  394. 394.
    Craelius, W., and Fricke, R. A., 1981, J. Neurobiol. 12:249–258.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  395. 395.
    Brading, A. F., and Caldwell, P. C., 1971, J. Physiol. (Lond.) 217:605–624.Google Scholar
  396. 396.
    Walker, R. J., Azanza, M. J., Kerkut, G. A., and Woodruff, G. N., 1975, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 50C:147–154.Google Scholar
  397. 397.
    DeRobertis, E., and Fiszer de Plazas, S., 1974, J. Neurochem. 23:1121–1125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  398. 398.
    Olsen, R. W., Lee, J. M., and Ban, M., 1975, Mol. Pharmacol. 11:566–577.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  399. 399.
    Ticku, M. K., and Olsen, R. W., 1977, Biochem. Biophys. Acta 464:519–529.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  400. 400.
    Price, C. H., Coggeshall, R. E., and McAdoo, D. J., 1978, Amino Acids as Chemical Transmitters (F. Fonnum, ed.), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 213–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  401. 401.
    Price, C. H., and McAdoo, D. J., 1979, J. Comp. Neurol. 188:647–677.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  402. 402.
    Loh Y.-P., and Gainer, H., 1975, Brain Res. 92:193–205.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  403. 403.
    Aswad, D. W., 1979, J. Neurobiol. 9:267–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  404. 404.
    Wilson, D., 1976, J. Neurobiol. 7:407–416.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  405. 405.
    Price, C. H., Coggeshall, R. E., and McAdoo, D. J., 1978, Brain Res. 154:25–40.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  406. 406.
    McAdoo, D. J., Iliffe, T. M., Price, C. H., and Novak, R. A., 1978, Brain Res. 154:41–51.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  407. 407.
    Acher, R., 1981, Trends Neurosci. 4:425–428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  408. 408.
    Hokfelt, T., Johansson, O., Ljungdahl, A., Lundberg, I. M., and Schultzberg, M., 1980, Nature 284:515–521.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  409. 409.
    McCaman, R., and Stetzler, J., 1977, J. Neurochem. 29:739–741.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  410. 410.
    Bodnaryk, R., 1981, Insect Biochem. 11:199–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  411. 411.
    Bodnaryk, R., 1981, Insect Biochem. 11:9–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  412. 412.
    Rassin, D. K., 1981, Adv. Biochem. Psychopharmacol. 29:127–133.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  413. 413.
    Amende, L. M., and Pierce, S. K., Jr., 1978, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 59B:257–261.Google Scholar
  414. 414.
    Mandel, P., Pasantes-Morales, H., and Urban, P. F., 1976, Transmitters in the Visual System (S. L. Bonting, ed.), Pergamon Press, Oxford, pp. 89–102.Google Scholar
  415. 415.
    Grossfeld, R., 1975, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 51C:l–4.Google Scholar
  416. 416.
    Grossfeld, R., 1976, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 53C:41–49.Google Scholar
  417. 417.
    Arnould, J. M., and Frentz, R., 1975, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 50C:59–66.Google Scholar
  418. 418.
    Felix, D., and Kuntzle, H., 1976, Adv. Biochem. Psychopharmacol. 15:165–173.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  419. 419.
    Hiripi, L., and Osborne, N. N., 1976, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 53B:549–553.Google Scholar
  420. 420.
    Van Harreveld, A., 1980, J. Neurobiol. 11:519–529.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  421. 421.
    Muneoka, Y., Ichimua, Y., Shiba, Y., and Kanno, Y., 1981, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 69C:171–177.Google Scholar
  422. 422.
    Haynes, L. W., 1980, Prog. Neurobiol. 15:205–245.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  423. 423.
    Scharrer, B., 1976, Prog. Brain Res. 45:125–135.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  424. 424.
    Fingerman, M., 1973, Fed. Proc. 32:2195–2203.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  425. 425.
    Acher, R., 1981, Neuroscience 4:225–229.Google Scholar
  426. 426.
    Golding, D. W., 1974, Biol. Rev. 49:161–224.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  427. 427.
    Frontali, N., and Gainer, H., 1977, Peptides in Neurobiology (H. Gainer, ed.), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 259–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  428. 428.
    Gainer, H., Loh, Y.-P., and Same, Y., 1977, Peptides in Neurobiology (H. Gainer, ed.), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 183–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  429. 429.
    Pickering, O. V., 1978, Essays in Biochemistry (P. N. Campbell and W. N. Aldridge, eds.), Academic Press, New York, 14:45–81.Google Scholar
  430. 430.
    Livett, B., 1981, Neurosci. Res. Prog. Bull. 20:39–45.Google Scholar
  431. 431.
    Mains, R. E., and Eipper, B. D., 1979, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 33:37–55.Google Scholar
  432. 432.
    Blobel, G., 1980, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 77:1496–1500.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  433. 433.
    Hales, C. N., 1978, FEBS Lett. 94:10–16.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  434. 434.
    Marks, N., 1977, Peptides in Neurobiology (H. Gainer, ed.), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 221–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  435. 435.
    Sternberger, L., 1979, Immunocytochemistry, 2nd ed., John Wiley & Sons, New York.Google Scholar
  436. 436.
    Van de Sande, F., 1979, J. Neurosci. Methods 1:3–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  437. 437.
    Van Noorden, S., Fritsch, H. A. R., Grillo, T. A. E., Polak, J. M., and Pearse, A. G. E., 1979, Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 37:54–72.Google Scholar
  438. 438.
    Dockray, G. J., 1979, Fed. Proc. 38:2295–2301.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  439. 439.
    Boer, H. H., Schot, L. P. C., Roubos, E. W., ter Maat, A., Lodder, J. C., Reichelt, D., and Swaab, D. F., 1979, Cell Tissue Res. 202:231–240.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  440. 440.
    Duve, H., and Thorpe, A., 1979, Cell Tissue Res. 200:187–191.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  441. 441.
    Zipser, B., 1980, Nature 283:857–858.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  442. 442.
    Mancillas, J. R., McGinty, J. F., Selverston, A. I., Karten, H., and Bloom, F. E., 1981, Nature 293:576–578.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  443. 443.
    Kleinholz, L. H., 1975, Nature 258:265–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  444. 444.
    Leeman, S. E., Mroz, E. A., and Carraway, R. E., Peptides in Neurobiology (H. Gainer, ed.), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 99–144.Google Scholar
  445. 445.
    Goldworthy, G. J., and Mordue, W., 1974, J. Endocrinol. 60:529–558.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  446. 446.
    Kupfermann, I., Lynch, G., Mayeri, C., and Weight, F. F., 1979, Fed. Proc. 38:2115–2126.Google Scholar
  447. 447.
    Agarwal, R. A., Leon, P. J. B., and Greenberg, M. J., 1972, Comp. Gen. Pharmacol. 3:249–260.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  448. 448.
    Price, D. A., and Greenberg, M. J., 1977, Science 197:670–671.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  449. 449.
    Nagle, G., 1981, J. Neurobiol. 12:599–611.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  450. 450.
    Greenberg, M. J., and Price, D. A., 1983, Ann. Rev. Physiol. 45:271–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  451. 451.
    Nagle, G. T., and Greenberg, M. J., 1982, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 71C:101–105.Google Scholar
  452. 452.
    Cottrell, G. A., Price, D. A., and Greenberg, M. J., 1981, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 70C:103–107.Google Scholar
  453. 453.
    Geraerts, W. P. M., deWith, N. D., Roubos, E. W., and Joosse, J., 1981, Neurosecretion: Molecules, Cells, Systems (D. Farner and K. Lederis, eds.), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 337–347.Google Scholar
  454. 454.
    Morris, H., Panico, M., Karplus, A. and Lloyd, P., Nature 300:643–645.Google Scholar
  455. 455.
    Boer, H. H., Schot, L. P. C., Veetra, J. H., and Reichelt, D., 1980, Cell Tissue Res. 213:21–30.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  456. 456.
    Dockray, C. J., Vaillant, C., and Williams, R. G., 1981, Nature 293:656–657.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  457. 457.
    Lloyd, P. E., 1980, J. Comp. Physiol. 138:265–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  458. 458.
    Strumwasser, F., Kaczmarek, L. K., Jennings, K. R., and Chiu, A. Y., 1981, Neurosecretion: Molecules, Cells, Systems (D. Farner and K. Lederis, eds.), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 249–268.Google Scholar
  459. 459.
    Arch, S., Early, P., and Smock, T., 1976, J. Gen. Physiol. 68:197–210.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  460. 460.
    Chiu, A. Y., Hunkapiller, M. W., Heller, E., Stuart, D. K., Hood, L. E., and Strumwasser, F., 1979, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 76:6656–6660.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  461. 461.
    Berry, R. W., 1981, Biochemistry 21:6200–6205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  462. 462.
    Berry, R. W., Trump, M. J., and Baylen, J. T., 1981, Biochemistry 21:6206–6211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  463. 463.
    Loh, Y.-P., Same, Y., and Gainer, H., 1975, J. Comp. Physiol. 100:283–295.Google Scholar
  464. 464.
    Stuart, D. K., Chiu, A. Y., and Strumwasser, F., 1980, J. Neurophysiol. 43:488–498.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  465. 465.
    Scheller, R. H., Jackson, J. F., McAllister, L. B., Schwartz, J. H., Kandel, E. R., and Axel, R., 1982, Cell 28:707–719.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  466. 466.
    Arch, S., Smock, T., Gurvis, R., and McCarthy, C., 1978, J. Comp. Physiol. 128:67–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  467. 467.
    Weber, E., Evans, C. J., Samuelsson, S. J., and Barchas, J. D., 1981, Science 214:1248–1250.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  468. 468.
    Branton, W. D., Arch, S., Smock, T., and Mayeri, E., 1978, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 75:5732–5736.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  469. 469.
    Mayeri, E., and Rothman, B. S., 1981, Neurosecretion: Molecules, Cell, Systems (D. Faraer and K. Lederis, eds.), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 305–316.Google Scholar
  470. 470.
    Chiu, A. Y., and Strumwasser, F., 1981, J. Neurosci. 1:812–826.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  471. 471.
    Heller, E., Kaczmarek, L. K., Hunkapiller, M. W., Hood, L. E., and Strumwasser, F., 1980, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 77:2328–2332.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  472. 472.
    Schlesinger, D. H., Babarik, S. P., and Blankenship, J. E., 1981, Symposium on Neurohypophyseal Peptide Hormones and other Biologically Active Peptides (D. H. Schlesinger, ed.), Elsevier, New York, pp. 135–150.Google Scholar
  473. 473.
    Davis, W. J., Mpitsos, G. J., and Pinneo, J. M., 1974, J. Comp. Physiol. 90:225–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  474. 474.
    Ram, J., 1975, Biol. Bull. 149:443–451.Google Scholar
  475. 475.
    Dogterom, G. E., and Geraerts, W. P. M., 1981, Neurosecretion: Molecules, Cells, Systems (D. Farner and K. Lederis, eds.), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 507.Google Scholar
  476. 476.
    Kubota, J., and Kanatani, H., 1974, Science 187:654–655.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  477. 477.
    Starratt, A. N., and Brown, B. E., 1975, Life Sci. 17:1253–1256.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  478. 478.
    Brown, B. E., 1975, Life Sci. 17:1241–1252.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  479. 479.
    Starratt, A. N., and Steele, R. W., 1980, Neurohormonal Techniques in Insects (T. A. Miller, ed.), Springer-Verlag, New York, pp. 1–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  480. 480.
    O’Shea, M., and Adams, M. E., 1981, Science 213:567–569.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  481. 481.
    Bishop, C. A., and O’Shea, M., 1982, J. Comp. Neurol. 207:223–238.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  482. 482.
    Marks, E. P., and Holman, G. M., 1974, J. Insect Physiol. 20:2087–2093.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  483. 483.
    Holman, G. M., and Cook, B. J., 1972, Biol. Bull. 142:446–460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  484. 484.
    Sowa, B. A., and Berg, T. K., 1975, J. Insect Physiol. 21:511–516.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  485. 485.
    Holman, G. M., and Cook, B. J., 1979, Insect Biochem. 9:149–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  486. 486.
    Sullivan, R. E., 1979, J. Exp. Zool. 210:543–552.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  487. 487.
    Kingan, T., and Titmus, M., 1983, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 74C:75–78.Google Scholar
  488. 488.
    Schwartz, T. L., Harris-Warrick, R. M., Glusman, S., and Kravitz, E. A., 1980, J. Neurobiol. 1:623–628.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  489. 489.
    Fernlund, P., 1976, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 439:17–25.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  490. 490.
    Fernlund, P., 1974, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 371:312–322.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  491. 491.
    Skorkowski, E. F., and Kleinholz, L. H., 1973, Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 20:595–597.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  492. 492.
    Hokfelt, T., Lundberg, J. M., Schultzberg, M., Johansson, O., Ljungdahl, A., and Rehfeld, J., 1980, Adv. Biochem. Psychopharmacol. 22:1–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  493. 493.
    Bloom, F. E., 1980, Peptides: Integrators of Cell and Tissue Function, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  494. 494.
    Alumets, J., Hakanson, R., Sundler, F., and Threll, J., 1979, Nature 279:805–806.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  495. 495.
    Martin, R., Frosch, D., Weber, E., and Voight, K. H., 1979, Neurosci. Lett. 15:253–257.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  496. 496.
    Van Noorden, S., Fritsch, H. A. R., Grillo, T. A. E., Polak, J. M., and Pearse, A. G. E., 1980, Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 40:47–62.Google Scholar
  497. 497.
    Stefano, G. B., Kream, R. M., and Zukin, R. E., 1980, Brain Res. 181:440–445.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  498. 498.
    Grimmelikhuizen, C. J. P., Balfe, A., Emson, P. C., Powell, D., and Sundler, F., 1981, Histochemistry 71:325–333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  499. 499.
    Taban, C. H., and Cathieni, M., 1979, Experientia 35:811–812.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  500. 500.
    Osborne, N. N., Cuello, A. C., and Dockray, G. J., 1982, Science 216:409–411.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  501. 501.
    Duve, H., and Thorpe, A., 1979, Cell Tissue Res. 200:187–191.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  502. 502.
    Kramer, K. J., Childs, C. N., Speirs, R. D., and Jacobs, R. M., 1982, Insect Biochem. 12:91–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  503. 503.
    Kramer, K. R., Speirs, R. D., and Childs, C. N., 1977, Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 32:423–426.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  504. 504.
    Remy, C., and Girardie, J., 1980, Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 40:27–45.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  505. 505.
    Remy, C., Girardie, J., and Dubois, M. P., 1979, Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 37:93–100.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  506. 506.
    Moore, G., Thornhill, J. A., Gill, V., Lederis, K., and Lukowiak, K., 1980, Brain Res. 206:213–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  507. 507.
    Grimm-Jorgensen, M., 1978, Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 35:387–390.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  508. 508.
    Fritsch, H. A. R., Van Noorden, S., and Pearse, A. G. E., 1979, Cell Tissue Res. 202:263–274.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  509. 509.
    Stone, J., and Mordue, W., 1981, Insect Biochem. 11:353–361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  510. 510.
    Mordue, W., and Stone, J. V., 1980, Insect Biochem. 10:219–239.Google Scholar
  511. 511.
    Ifsin, M. S., Gainer, H., and Barker, J. L., 1975, Nature 254:72–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  512. 512.
    Konenko, N. I., 1979, Neuroscience 4:2055–2069.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  513. 513.
    Kupfermann, I., and Weiss, R., 1976, J. Gen. Physiol. 67:113–123.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  514. 514.
    Aswad, D., 1977, J. Neurochem. 28:1137–1140.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  515. 515.
    Strumwasser, F., and Wilson, D. L., 1976, J. Gen. Physiol. 67:691–702.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  516. 516.
    Roubos, E. W., and Moorer Van Delft, C., 1976, Cell Tissue Res. 174:221–231.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  517. 517.
    Carley, W. W., 1981, Neurosecretion: Molecules, Cells, Systems (D. Farner, and K. Lederis, eds.), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 506.Google Scholar
  518. 518.
    Rowell, H. G., 1976, Adv. Insect Physiol. 12:63–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  519. 519.
    Aston, R. J., and White, A. F., 1974, J. Insect Physiol. 20:1673–1682.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  520. 520.
    Aston, R. J., and Hughes, R., 1980, Neurohumoral Techniques in Insects (T. A. Miller, ed.), Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, pp. 15–34.Google Scholar
  521. 521.
    Aston, R. J., 1975, J. Insect Physiol. 21:1873–1877.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  522. 522.
    Gainer, H., and Wollberg, Z., 1974, J. Neurobiol. 5:243–261.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  523. 523.
    Koike, H., and Nagata, Y., 1979, J. Physiol. (Lond.) 295:397–417.Google Scholar
  524. 524.
    Berry, R. W., and Geinisman, T., 1979, J. Neurobiol. 10:489–498.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  525. 525.
    Berry, R. W., 1979, J. Neurobiol. 10:499–508.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  526. 526.
    Snow, R. W., 1982, J. Neurobiol. 13:267–277.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  527. 527.
    Schaller, H. C., 1979, Trends Neurosci. 2:120–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  528. 528.
    Bodenmuller, H., and Schaller, H. C., 1981, Nature 293:579–580.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  529. 529.
    Fenical, W., 1982, Science 215:923–928.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  530. 530.
    Premuzic, E., 1971, Prog. Chem. Org. Nat. Prod. 29:417–485.Google Scholar
  531. 531.
    Norton, T. R., 1981, Fed. Proc. 40:21–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  532. 532.
    Shecket, G., and Lasek, R. J., 1982, J. Neurochem. 38:827–832.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  533. 533.
    Vanaman, T. C., Shareif, F., and Watterson, D. M., 1979, Calcium Binding Proteins and Calcium Function (R. H. Wasserman, R. A. Carradino, E. Carafoli, R. H. Kretsinger, D. H. MacLennan, and F. L. Siegel, eds.), Elsevier, New York, pp. 107–148.Google Scholar
  534. 534.
    Seamon, K. R., and Moore, B. W., 1980, J. Biochem. 255:11644–11647.Google Scholar
  535. 535.
    Ciuditta, A., Moore, B. W., and Prozzo, N., 1977, J. Neurochem. 29:235–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  536. 536.
    Molla, A., Kilhoffer, M. C., Ferraz, C., Audemard, E., Walsh, M. P., and Demaille, J. G., 1981, J. Biol. Chem. 256:982–987.Google Scholar
  537. 537.
    Rieske, E., Schubert, P., and Kreutzberg, G. W., 1975, Brain Res. 84:365–382.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  538. 538.
    Ambron, R. T., Goldman, J. E., and Schwartz, J. H., 1974, J. Cell Biol. 61:665–675.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  539. 539.
    Ambron, R. T., and Treistman, S. N., 1977, Brain Res. 121:287–309.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  540. 540.
    Ambron, R. T., Goldman, J. E., Thompson, E. B., and Schwartz, J. H., 1974, J. Cell Biol. 61:649–664.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  541. 541.
    Thompson, E. B., Schwartz, J. H., and Kandel, E. R., 1976, Brain Res. 112:251–281.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  542. 542.
    Ambron, R. T., Sherbany, A. A., and Schwartz, J. H., 1981, Brain Res. 207:33–48.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  543. 543.
    Ambron, R. T., 1982, Brain Res. 239:489–505.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  544. 544.
    Schwartz, J. H., 1979, Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 2:467–504.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  545. 545.
    Hammerschlag, R., and Stone, G., 1982, Trends Neurosci. 5:12–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  546. 546.
    Tauc, L., 1980, Trends Neurosci. 3:241–245.Google Scholar
  547. 547.
    Tauc, L., 1979, Biochem. Pharmacol. 27:3493–3498.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  548. 48.
    Tauc, L., and Hinzen, L., 1974, Brain Res. 80:340–344.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  549. 549.
    Ornberg, R. L., Smyth, T., and Benton, A. W., 1976, Toxicon 14:329–333.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  550. 550.
    Cariello, L., and Zanetti, L., 1977, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 57C:169–173.Google Scholar
  551. 551.
    Beress, L., and Beress, R., 1975, FEBS Lett. 50:311–314.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  552. 552.
    Boyd, C. A. R., 1979, J. Theor. Biol. 76:415–417.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  553. 553.
    Niall, H. D., 1982, Annu. Rev. Physiol. 44:615–624.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  554. 554.
    Skirkoll, L. R., Grace, A. A., Hommer, D. W., Rehfeld, J., Goldstein, M., Hokfelt, T., and Bunney, B. S., 1981, Neuroscience 6:2111–2124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  555. 555.
    Pearse, A. G. E., 1978, Centrally-Acting Peptides (E. J. Hughes, ed.), Macmillan, New York, pp. 49–59.Google Scholar
  556. 556.
    Dunn, A. J., 1978, Neurosci. Res. Prog. Bull. 16:600–614.Google Scholar
  557. 557.
    Werman, R., 1966, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 18:745–766.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  558. 558.
    Orrego, F., 1979, Neuroscience 4:1035–1059.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  559. 559.
    Reichelt, K. L., and Kwamme, E., 1973, J. Neurochem. 21:849–859.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  560. 560.
    Reichelt, K. L., and Edminson, P. D., 1977, Peptides in Neurobiology (H. Gainer, ed.), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 171–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  561. 561.
    Stein, C., and Weinreich, D., 1982, J. Neurochem. 38:204–214.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  562. 562.
    Murdock, L., and Omar, D., 1981, Insect Biochem. 11:161–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  563. 563.
    Mir, A. K., and Vaughn, P. F. T., 1981, J. Neurochem. 36:441–446.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  564. 564.
    Evans, P. H., Soderlund, D., and Aldrich, J. R., 1980, Insect Biochem. 10:375–380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  565. 565.
    Mir, A. K., and Vaughn, P. F. T., 1981, Insect Biochem. 11:571–577.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  566. 566.
    Curatolo, A., Cecchi, L., Eusebi, F., and de Santis, A., 1979, J. Neurochem. 32:1349–1350.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  567. 567.
    Berridge, M. J., 1979, The Neurosciences, Fourth Study Program (F. O. Schmitt and F. G. Worden, ed.), MIT Press, Cambridge, pp. 873–892.Google Scholar
  568. 568.
    Kaczmarek, L. K., Jennings, K., and Strumwasser, F., 1978, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 75:5200–5204.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  569. 569.
    Kupfermann, I., Cohen, J. L., Mandelbaum, D. E., Schonberg, M., Susswein, A. J., and Weiss, K. R., 1979, Fed. Proc. 38:2095–2102.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  570. 570.
    Cedar, H., Kandel, E. R., and Schwartz, J. H., 1972, J. Gen. Physiol. 60:558–569.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  571. 571.
    Enyeart, H., 1982, J. Neurobiol. 12:505–513.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  572. 572.
    Venturini, G., Carolei, A., Palladini, G., Margotta, V., and Cerbo, R., 1981, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 69C:105–108.Google Scholar
  573. 573.
    Stefano, G., Catapane, E. J., and Kream, R. M., 1981, Cell Mol. Neurobiol. 1:57–68.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  574. 574.
    Levitan, I. B., and Treistman, S. N., 1977, Brain Res. 136:307–317.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  575. 575.
    Bandle, E. F., and Levitan, I. B., 1977, Brain Res. 125:325–331.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  576. 576.
    Greengard, P., 1978, Cyclic Nucleotides, Phosphorylated Proteins and Neuronal Function, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  577. 577.
    Neary, J. R., Crow, T., and Alkon, D. I., 1981, Nature 293:658–660.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  578. 578.
    Lasek, R., Gainer, H., and Przybylskii, R., 1974, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 71:1188–1192.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  579. 579.
    Peterson, R. P., 1970, J. Neurochem. 17:325–338.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  580. 580.
    Lasek, R. J., Dabrowski, C., and Nordlander, R., 1973, Nature (New Biol.) 244:162–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  581. 581.
    Black, M. M., and Lasek, R. J., 1977, J. Neurobiol. 8:229–237.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  582. 582.
    Voogt, P., 1973, Chemical Zoology (M. Florkin and B. T. Scheer, eds.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 245–300.Google Scholar
  583. 583.
    Osborne, N. N., Althaus, H. A., and Neuhoff, V., 1972, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 43B:671–679.Google Scholar
  584. 584.
    Bolognani, L., Masserini, M., Bodini, P. A, Bolognani, F. A. M., and Ottaviani, E., 1981, J. Neurochem. 36:821–825.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  585. 585.
    Noren, R., and Svennenholm, L., 1973, Z. Evol. Biokhim. Fiziol. 9:225–234.Google Scholar
  586. 586.
    Segler, K., Rahmann, H., and Rosner, H., 1978, Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 6:87–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  587. 587.
    Henkart, M., 1975, Science 188:154–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  588. 588.
    Brown, A. M., Baur, P. S., Jr., and Tuley, F. H., Jr., 1975, Science 188:157–160.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  589. 589.
    Petrunyaka, V. V., 1982, Cell Mol. Neurobiol. 1:11–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  590. 590.
    Krauhs, J. M., Sordahl, L. A., and Brown, A. M., 1977, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 471:25–31.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  591. 591.
    O’Shea, M., 1982, Trends Neurosci. 5:69–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  592. 592.
    Brownstein, M., Axelrod, J., and Saavedra, J., Zeman, G. H., and Carpenter, D. O., 1974, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 71:4662–4665.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  593. 593.
    Burnstock, G., 1980, Nerve Cells, Transmitters, and Behavior (R. Levi-Montalcini, ed.), Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 45–81.Google Scholar
  594. 594.
    Aletta, J. M., and Goldberg, D. J., 1982, Science 218:913–916.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  595. 595.
    Burnstock, G., 1981, J. Physiol. (Lond.) 313:1–35.Google Scholar
  596. 596.
    Bokisch, A. J., Osborne, N. N., and Walker, R. J., 1983, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 75C:171–177.Google Scholar
  597. 597.
    Georges, D., and Dubois, M. P., 1980, C.r. Acad. Sci. Paris, Ser. D. 290:29–32.Google Scholar
  598. 598.
    Thorndyke, M. C., 1982, Regul. Peptides 3:281–293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  599. 599.
    Pestarino, M., 1983, Experientia 39:1156–1158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marilyn W. McCaman
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of NeurosciencesBeckman Research Institute of the City of HopeDuarteUSA

Personalised recommendations