Advertisement

Abstract

Synaptic vesicles are the characteristic organelles of the presynaptic nerve terminals of chemical synapses (i.e., those utilizing the release of a specific chemical transmitter substance to bring about synaptic transmission). They are normally 45–50 nm in diameter and must be among the most homogeneous and uniform lipoprotein membrane organelles known. Exceptionally, the synaptic vesicles of the electromotor nerve terminals in the electric organ of Torpedo are larger (85–90 nm in diameter); these vesicles can be isolated relatively easily in bulk and high purity and have thus provided an important source material for most of the recent work on the biochemistry and biophysics of synaptic vesicles. By contrast, Torpedo motor nerve terminals have normal-sized vesicles. The subject has recently been comprehensively reviewed,1–3 and only a selection from the vast literature can be given here.

Keywords

Synaptic Vesicle Nerve Terminal Transmitter Release Electric Organ Cytoplasmic Pool 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Zimmermann, H., 1979, Neuroscience 4:1773–1804.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Whittaker, V. P., and Stadler, H., 1980, Proteins of the Nervous System, 2nd ed. (R. A. Bradshaw and D. M. Schneider, eds.), Raven Press, New York, pp. 231–255.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Macintosh, F. C., and Collier, B., 1976, , Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology, Volume 42 (E. Zaimis, ed.), Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, pp. 99–228.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Sjöstrand, F., 1953, J. Appl. Physiol. 24:1422.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Palay, S. L., and Palade, G. E., 1954, Anat. Rec. 118:336.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    De Robertis, E. D. P., and Bennett, H. S., 1954, Fed. Proc. 13:35.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Castillo, J. del, and Katz, B., 1955, J. Physiol. (Lond.) 128:396–411.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Mountford, S., 1963, Exp. Cell Res. 9:403–418.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ceccarelli, B., Hurlbut, W. P., and Mauro, A., 1973, J. Cell Biol. 57:499–524.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Zimmermann, H., and Denston, C. R., 1977, Neuroscience 2:695–714.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Zimmermann, H., and Denston, C. R., 1977, Neuroscience 2:715–730.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Clark, A. W., Hurlbut, W. P., and Mauro, A., 1972, J. Cell Biol. 52:1–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Model, P. G., Highstein, S. M., and Bennett, M. V. L., 1975, Brain Res. 98:209–228.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ceccarelli, B., and Hurlbut, W. P., 1975, J. Physiol. (Lond.) 247:163–168.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Jones, R. T., Walker, J. H., Stadler, H., and Whittaker, V. P., 1982, Cell Tissue Res. 223:117–126.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Jones, R. T., Walker, J. H., Stadler, H., and Whittaker, V. P., 1982, Cell Tissue Res. 224:685–688.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kopin, I. J., Breese, G. R., Kraus, K. R., and Weise, V. K., 1968, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 161:271–278.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Collier, B., 1969, J. Physiol. (Lond.) 205:341–352.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Chakrin, L. W., Marchbanks, R. M., Mitchell, J. F., and Whittaker, V. P., 1972, J. Neurochem. 19:2727–2736.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Levy, W. B., Haycock, J. W., and Cotman, C. W., 1976, Brain Res. 119:243–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Schwarzenfeld, I. von, 1979, Neuroscience 4:477–493.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Marchbanks, R. M., 1975, Int. J. Biochem. 6:303–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Marchbanks, R. M., 1977, , Synapses (G. A. Cottrell and P. N. R. Usherwood, eds.), Blackie, Glasgow, pp. 81–101.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Dunant, Y., and Israël, M., 1979, Trends Neurosci. 2:130–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Tauc, L., 1979, Biochem. Pharmacol. 28:3493–3498.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Israël, M., Manaranche, R., Marsal, J., Meunier, F.M., Morel, F., Franchon, P., and Lesbats, B., 1980, J. Membr. Biol. 54:115–126.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Smith, A. D., 1972, Biochem. Soc. Symp. 36:103–131.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Lagercrantz, H., 1971, Acta Physiol. Scand. [Suppl.] 366:1–44.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Robertson, D. J., 1961, , Regional Neurochemistry (S. S. Kety and J. Elkes, eds.), Pergamon Press, Oxford, pp. 491–534.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Blaschko, H., Hagen, P., and Welch, A. D., 1955, J. Physiol. (Lond.) 129:27–49.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Hillarp, N.-A., Högberg, B., and Nilson, B., 1955, Nature 176:1032–1033.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Whittaker, V. P., 1959, Biochem. J. 72:694–706.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Gray, E. G., and Whittaker, V. P., 1962, J. Anat. 96:79–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Johnson, M. K., and Whittaker, V. P., 1962, Acta Neurol. Scand. [Suppl.] 160:60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Johnson, M. K., and Whittaker, V. P., 1963, Biochem. J. 88:404–409.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Whittaker, V. P., Michaelson, I. A., and Kirkland, R. J. A., 1964, Biochem. J. 90:293–303.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    De Robertis, E., Arnaiz, G. R. de L., and de Iraldi, A. P., 1962, Nature 194:794–795.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Whittaker, V. P., 1964, Prog. Brain Res. 8:90–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Germain, M., and Proulx, P., 1965, Biochem. Pharmacol. 14:1815–1819.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Wiegandt, H., 1967, J. Neurochem. 14:671–674.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Lapetina, E. G., Soto, E. F., and De Robertis, E., 1968, J. Neurochem. 15:437–445.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Whittaker, V. P., and Sheridan, M. N., 1965, J. Neurochem. 12:363–372.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Whittaker, V. P., 1966, Mechanisms of Release of Biogenic Amines (U. S. von Euler, S. Rosell, and B. Uvnäs, eds.), Pergamon Press, Oxford, pp. 147–163.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Krnjevic, K., and Mitchell, J. F., 1961, J. Physiol. (Lond.) 155:246–262.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Macintosh, F. C., 1959, Can. J. Biochem. 37:343–356.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Kuffler, S. W., and Yoshikama, D., 1975, J. Physiol. (Lond.) 251:465–482.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Katz, B., and Miledi, R., 1972, J. Physiol. (Lond.) 224:665–699.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Anderson, C. R., and Stevens, C. F., 1973, J. Physiol. (Lond.) 235:655–691.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Richardson, P. J., 1981, J. Neurochem. 37:258–260.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Nagy, A., Baker, R. R., Morris, S. J., and Whittaker, V. P., 1976, Brain Res. 109:285–309.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Nagy, A., Varady, G., Joö, F., Rakonczay, Z., and Pilc, A., 1977, J. Neurochem. 29:449–459.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Wilson, W. S., Schulz, R. A., and Cooper, J. R., 1973, J. Neurochem. 20:659–667.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Dowe, G. H. C., Kilbinger, H., and Whittaker, V. P., 1981, J. Neurochem. 35:993–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Whittaker, V. P., and Roed, I. S., 1982, Compartmentation and Transmitter Interaction (H. F. Bradford, ed.), Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Zimmermann, H., Stadler, H., and Whittaker, V. P., 1981, Chemical Transmission 75 Years (L. Stjärne, P. Hedqvist, H. Lagercrantz, and A. Wennmalm, eds.), Academic Press, London, pp. 92–104.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Whittaker, V. P., and Zimmermann, H., 1976, , Biochemical and Biophysical Perspectives in Marine Biology (D. C. Malins and J. R. Sargent, eds.), Academic Press, London, pp. 67–116.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Fritsch, G., 1890, Die elektrischen Fische, Von Veit, Leipzig.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Fox, G. Q., and Richardson, G. P., 1978, J. Comp. Neurol. 179:677–697.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Fox, G. Q., and Richardson, G. P., 1979, J. Comp. Neurol. 185:293–316.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Krenz, W.-D., Tashiro, T., Wächtler, K., Whittaker, V. P., and Witzemann, V., 1980, Neuroscience 5:617–624.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Mellinger, J., Belbenoît, P., Ravaille, M., and Szabo, T., 1978, Dev. Biol. 67:167–188.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Walker, J. H., Jones, R. T., Obrocki, J., Richardson, G. P., and Stadler, H., 1982, Cell Tissue Res. 223:101–116.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Jones, R. T., Walker, J. H., Richardson, P. J., Fox, G. Q., and Whittaker, V. P., 1981, Cell Tissue Res. 218:355–373.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Richardson, P. J., Walker, J. H., Jones, R. T., and Whittaker, V. P., 1982, J. Neurochem. 38:1605–1614.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Sheridan, M. N., and Whittaker, V. P., 1964, J. Physiol. (Lond.) 175:25–26P.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Sheridan, M. N., Whittaker, V. P., and Israël, M., 1966, Z. Zellforsch. 74:291–3077.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Ohsawa, K., Dowe, G. H. C., Morris, S. J., and Whittaker, V. P., 1979, Brain Res. 161:447–457.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Miledi, R., Molinoff, P., and Potter, L. T., 1971, Nature 229:554–557.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Erdélyi, L., and Krenz, W.-D., 1984, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. (in press).Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Whittaker, V. P., Essman, W. B., and Dowe, G. H. C., 1972, Biochem. J. 128:833–846.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Whittaker, V. P., 1956, Pharmacol. Rev. 18:401–412.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Tashiro, T., and Stadler, H., 1978, Eur. J. Biochem. 90:479–487.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Israël, M., Gautron, G., and Lesbats, B., 1970, J. Neurochem. 17:1441–1450.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Wagner, J. A., Carlson, H. S., and Kelly, R. B., 1978, Biochemistry 17:1199–1205.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Zimmermann, H., and Denston, C. R., 1976, Brain Res. 111:365–376.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Dowdall, M. J., and Whittaker, V. P., 1973, J. Neurochem. 20:921–935.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Whittaker, V. P., 1966, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 137:982–998.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Whittaker, V. P., 1977, Naturwissenschaften 64:606–611.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Breckenridge, W. C., Morgan, I. G., Zanetta, J. P., and Vincendon, G., 1973, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 320:681–686.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Hosie, R. J. A., 1965, Biochem. J. 96:404–412.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Fonnum, F., 1967, Biochem. J. 103:262–270.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Breckenridge, W. C., Gombos, G., and Morgan, I. G., 1972, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 266:695–707.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Mellanby, J., and Whittaker, V. P., 1968, J. Neurochem. 15:205–208.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Mahler, H. R., 1977, Neurochem. Res. 2:119–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Lentz, T. L., and Chester, J., 1982, Neuroscience 7:9–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Zisapel, N., and Zurgil, N., 1979, Brain Res. 178:297–310.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Richter-Landsberg, C., Neuhoff, V., and Waehneldt, T. V., 1977, J. Neurosci. Res. 3:103–113.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Nicklaus, W. J., Puszkin, S., and Berl, S., 1973, J. Neurochem. 20:109–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Fonnum, F., 1970, , Drugs and Cholinergic Mechanisms in the CNS (E. Heilbronn and A. Winter, eds.), Försvarets Forskningsanstalt, Stockholm, pp. 83–95.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Tsudzuki, T., 1979, J. Biochem. 86:777–782.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Mangan, J. L., and Whittaker, V. P., 1966, Biochem. J. 98:128–137.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Rassin, D. K., 1972, J. Neurochem. 19:139–148.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    De Belleroche, J. S., and Bradford, H. F., 1973, J. Neurochem. 21:441–451.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Lähdesmäki, P., Karppinen, A., Saarni, H., and Winter, R., 1977, Brain Res. 138:295–308.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Kuriyama, K., Roberts, E., and Vos, T., 1968, Brain Res. 9:231–252.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Cleugh, J., Gaddum, J. H., Mitchell, A. A., Smith, M. W., and Whittaker, V. P., 1964, J. Physiol. Lond.) 170:69–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Duffy, M. J., Mulhall, D., and Powell, D., 1975, J. Neurochem. 25:305–307.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Morris, S. J., 1980, Neuroscience 5:1509–1516.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Stadler, H., and Tashiro, T., 1979, Eur. J. Biochem. 101:171–178.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Stadler, H., and Whittaker, V. P., 1978, Brain Res. 153:408–413.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Giompres, P. E., Morris, S. J., and Whittaker, V. P., 1980, Neuroscience 6:757–763.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Schmidt, R., Zimmermann, H., and Whittaker, V. P., 1980, Neuroscience 5:625–638.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Dowdall, M. J., Boyne, A. F., and Whittaker, V. P., 1974, Biochem. J. 140:1–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Stadler, H., and Füldner, H. H., 1980, Nature 286:293–294.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Füldner, H. H., and Stadler, H., 1982, Eur. J. Biochem. 12:519–524.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Fenwick, E. M., and Stadler, H., 1981, Abstracts 8th International Meeting International Society for Neurochemistry, Nottingham, p. 168.Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Giompres, P., and Luqmani, Y. A., 1980, Neuroscience 5:1041–1052.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Michaelson, D. M., and Angel, I., 1980, Life Sci. 27:39–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Luqmani, Y. A., 1981, Neuroscience 6:1011–1021.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Breer, H., Morris, S. J., and Whittaker, V. P., 1977, Eur. J. Biochem. 80:313–318.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Carpenter, R. S., and Parsons, S. M., 1978, J. Biol. Chem. 253:326–329.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Suszkiw, J. B., 1981, Cholinergic Mechanisms, Phylogenetic Aspects Central and Peripheral Synapses and Clinical Significance (G. Pepeu and H. Ladinsky, eds.), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 313–320.Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Zimmermann, H., Dowdall, M. J., and Lane, D. A., 1979, Neuroscience 4:979–993.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Dowdall, M. J., 1977, , Biochemistry of Characterised Neurons (N. N. Osborne, ed.), Pergamon Press, Oxford, pp. 177–216.Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Marchbanks, R. M., and Israël, M., 1971, J. Neurochem. 18:439–448.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Suszkiw, J. B., Zimmermann, H., and Whittaker, V. P., 1978, J. Neurochem. 30:1269–1280.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Weiler, M., Roed, I. S., and Whittaker, V. P., 1982, J. Neurochem. 38:1187–1191.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Zimmermann, H., and Whittaker, V. P., 1977, Nature 261:633–635.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Giompres, P. A., Zimmermann, H., and Whittaker, V. P., 1981, Neuroscience 6:775–785.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Giompres, P. A., Zimmermann, H., and Whittaker, V. P., 1981, Neuroscience 6:765–774.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Barker, L. A., Dowdall, M. J., and Whittaker, V. P., 1972, Biochem. J. 130:1063–1080.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Whittaker, V. P., and Luqmani, Y. A., 1980, Gen. Pharmacol. 11:7–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Luqmani, Y. A., Sudlow, G., and Whittaker, V. P., 1980, Neuroscience 5:153–160.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Schwarzenfeld, I. von, Sudlow, G., and Whittaker, V. P., 1979, Prog. Brain Res. 49:1613–174.Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Jones, R. T., and Walker, J. H., 1982, Abstracts European Symposium on Cholinergic Transmission, Presynaptic Aspects, Strasbourg, p. 60.Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Hooper, J. E., Carlson, S. S., and Kelly, R. B., 1980, J. Cell Biol. 87:104–113.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Wedel, R. J. von, Carlson, S. S., and Kelly, R. B., 1981, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 78:1014–1018.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Zimmermann, H., 1979, Trends Neurosci. 2:282–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Zimmermann, H., 1981, Chemical Transmission 75 Years (L. Stjärne, P. Hedqvist, H. Lagercrantz, and A. Wennmalm, eds.) Academic Press, London, pp. 179–185.Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Michaelson, D. M., Ophis, I., and Angel, I., 1980, J. Neurochem. 35:116–124.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Mitchell, J. F., and Silver, A., 1963, J. Physiol. (Lond.) 165:117–129.Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Vizi, E. S., and Vyskočil, F., 1979, J. Physiol. (Lond.) 286:1–14.Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Hungen, K. von, Mahler, H. R., and Moore, W. T., 1968, J. Biol. Chem. 243:1415–1423.Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Dahlström, A., 1971, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. [Biol.] 261:319–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Grillo, M. A., 1966, Pharmacol. Rev. 18:387–399.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Schmid, D., Stadler, H., and Whittaker, V. P., 1982, Eur. J. Biochem. 122:633–639.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Zimmermann, H., and Whittaker, V. P., 1973, Abstracts 4th International Meeting International Society for Neurochemistry, Tokyo, p. 321.Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Heilbronn, H., and Pettersson, H., 1973, Acta Physiol. Scand. 88:590–592.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Davies, L. P., 1978, Exp. Brain Res. 33:149–151.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Ulmar, G., and Whittaker, V. P., 1974, J. Neurochem. 22:451–454.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Ulmar, G., and Whittaker, V. P., 1974, Brain Res. 71:155–159.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Stadler, H., and Tashiro, T., 1982, Abstracts European Symposium on Cholinergic Transmission, Presynaptic Aspects, Strasbourg, p. 92.Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    Haynes, D. H., Lansman, J., Cahill, A., and Morris, S. J., 1979, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 557:340–353.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Creutz, C. E., Pazoles, C. J., and Pollard, H. B., 1978, J. Biol. Chem. 253:2858–2866.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Morris, S. J., Hughes, J. M. X., and Whittaker, V. P., 1982, J. Neurochem. 39:529–535.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Südhof, T. C., Walker, J. H., and Obrocki, J., 1982 EMBO. J. 1:1167–1170.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Greengard, P., 1978, Cyclic Nucleotides, Phosphorylated Proteins, and Neuronal Function, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    Huttner, W. B., De Camilli, P., Schiebler, W., and Greengard, P., 1981, Abstr. Soc. Neurosci. 7:441.Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    DeLorenzo, R. J., Freedman, S. D., Yohe, W. B., and Maurer, S. C., 1979, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 76:1838–1842.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Weiler, M., and Roed, I. S., 1980, Hoppe-Seyler’s Z. Physiol. Chem. 361:1354–1355.Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    Cohen, F. S., Zimmerberg, J., and Finkelstein, A., 1980, J. Gen. Physiol. 75:251–270.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Pollard, H. B., Pazoles, C. J., Creutz, C. E., and Linder, O., 1979, Int. Rev. Cytol. 58:159–197.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • V. P. Whittaker
    • 1
  1. 1.Abteilung NeurochemieMax-Planck-Institut für Biophysikalische ChemieGöttingenFederal Republic of Germany

Personalised recommendations