More on Radioactive Waste

  • Bernard L. Cohen


While the high-level waste discussed in Chapter 5 is the problem that has received the lion’s share of the attention, it is not the only waste problem involved with nuclear power. In fact it is not even the most important one. Several other nuclear waste issues will be considered in this chapter, followed by a summation of the problem as a whole.


Radioactive Waste Radioactive Material Spend Fuel Radon Exposure Radon Emission 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Reference Notes

  1. 1.
    A convenient review of radon properties and behavior is given in B. L. Cohen, “Radon: Characteristics, Natural Occurrence, Technological Enhancement, and Health Effects,” Progress in Nuclear Energy, 4, 1 (1979).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    F. E. Lundin, J. K. Wagoner, V. E. Archer: “Radon Daughter Exposure and Respiratory Cancer: Quantitative and Temporal Aspects,” U.S. Department of HEW-NIOSH-NIEHS Joint Monograph No. 1 (1971).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    U.S. National Academy of Sciences Committee on Biological Effects of Ionizing radiation, “The Effects on Populations of Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation” (1980).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    B. L. Cohen: “Radon Daughter Exposure to Uranium Miners,” Health Physics, 42, 449 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    The United Nations Scientific Committee on Effects of Atomic Radiation, “Sources and Effects of Ionizing Radiation,” United Nations, New York (1977).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    A. J. Breslin, A. C. George: “Radon Sources, Distribution, and Exposures in Residential Buildings,” Transactions of the American Nuclear Society, 33, 150 (1979); J. Rundo, F. Markun, and N. J. Plondke, “Observations of High Concentrations of Radon in Certain Houses,” Health Physics, 36, 729 (1979); G. A. Franz, Colorado State Department of Health, private communication (1979); Health and Rehabilitative Services Department, State of Florida, “Study of Radon Daughter Concentrations in Structures in Polk and Hillsborough Counties” (1978); E. Stranden, L. Berteig, and F. Ugletveit, “A Study of Radon in Dwellings,” Health Physics, 36, 413 (1979).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    B. L. Cohen, “Health Effects of Radon from Insulation of Buildings,” Health Physics, 39, 937 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    C. D. Hollowell, M. L. Boegel, J. G. Ingersoll, W. W. Nazaroff: “Radon- 222 in Energy Efficient Buildings,” Transactions of the American Nuclear Society, 33, 148 (1979).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, “Environmental Analysis of the Uranium Fuel Cycle,” Report EPA-520/9-73-003B (1973); R. O. Pohl, “Health Effects of Radon-222 from Uranium Milling,” Search, 7, 345 (1976); C. C. Travis, etal, “Radiological Assessment of Radon-222 Released from Uranium Mills and Other Natural and Technologically Enhanced Sources,” U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Com-mission Report NUREG/CR-0573; U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Final Generic Environmental Impact Statement on Uranium Milling, NUREG-0706.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    B. L. Cohen: “Health Effects of Radon Emissions from Uranium Mill Tailings,” Health Physics, 42, 695 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10, Part 40, Appendix A.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    B. L. Cohen: “The Role of Radon in Comparisons of Effects of Radioactivity Releases from Nuclear Power, Coal Burning, and Phosphate Mining,” Health Physics, 40, 19 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    E. D. Goldberg etal.: “Marine Chemistry,” in Radioactivity in the Marine Environment, National Academy of Sciences (1971).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    B. L. Cohen: “Health Effects of Radon from Coal Burning,” Health Physics, 42, 725 (1982).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    P. D. Moskowitz etal.: “Photovoltaic Energy Technologies: Health and Envi-ronmental Effects Document,” Brookhaven National Laboratory Report BNL- 51284 (1980); P. Masser, “Low Cost Structure for Photovoltaic Arrays,” Sandia Laboratory Report, SAND-79-7006 (1979); B. L. Cohen, “Consequences of a Linear, No-Threshold Dose-Response Relationship for Chemical Carcinogens,” Risk Analysis, 1, 267 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    J. W. Gofman, A. R. Tamplin: Poisoned Power (Rodale Press, Emmaus, Pa. 1971 ).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10, Part 50, Appendix I. U.S. Nuclear Reg-ulatory Commission, Regulatory Guides 1.109–1.113 (1976). These specify ex-penditure of $1000/man-rem; dividing by the fatal cancer risk from Chapter 2, 1/8000 per man-rem gives $8 million per fatal cancer averted.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Part 190.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kentucky Department of Human Resources, “Six Month Study of Radiation Concentrations and Transport Mechanisms at the Maxey Flats Area of Fleming County, Kentucky” (1974); G. L. Meyer, “Preliminary Data on the Occurrence of Transuranium Nuclides in the Environment at the Radioactive Waste Burial Site, Maxey Flats, Kentucky;” EPA Report, Office of Radiation Programs (1976).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    J. Hardin: Kentucky Department of Human Resources, private communication.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    J. Razor: (Maxey Flats Environmental Protection Officer), private communication.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    U.S. House of Representatives Subcommittee on Conservation, Energy, and Nat-ural Resources, William B. Moorhead, Chairman, Hearings on February 23 (1976).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    J. M. Matuszek, F. V. Strnisa, C. F. Baxter: “Radionuclide Dynamics and Health Implications for the NY Nuclear Service Center’s Radioactive Waste Burial Site,” International Atomic Energy Agency paper IAEA-SM-207/59 (1976).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    National News Council, Cohen etal. against NBC News, filed February 23 (1977).Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    W. F. Naedle: “Nuclear Grave is Haunting KY,” Philadelphia Evening Bulletin, May 7 (1979).Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10, Part 61.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Federal Register, “Licensing Requirements for Land Disposal of Radioactive Waste,” Vol. 46 (142), 38096ff July 24 (1981).Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Draft Environmental Statement on 10CFR61, NRC Document NUREG-0782 (1981).Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    B. L. Cohen: “A Generic Probabilistic Risk Assessment for Low Level Waste Burial Grounds,” (submitted for publication, Nuclear and Chemical Waste Man-agement).Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    H. J. Rosier, H. Lange: Geochemical Tables (Elsevier Publ. Co., Amsterdam, 1972 ).Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    International Commission on Radiological Protection, Report of the Task Group on Reference Man, ICRP Publication No. 23 ( Pergamon Press, New York, 1975 ).Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Data Base for Radioactive Waste Management, NRC Document NUREG/CR-1759 (1981).Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA), “Alternatives for Long Term Management of Defense High-Level Radioactive Waste,” Doc¬ument ERDA-77-42/1 (1977).Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    L. R. Brown: “World Food Resources and Population,” Population Reference Bureau (1981).Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Western New York Nuclear Service Center Study, U.S. Department of Energy Report TID-28905-2 (1980).Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    B. L. Cohen: “The Situation at West Valley,” Public Utilities Fortnightly, Sept. 27, (1979), p. 26.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    V. I. Spitsyn etal.: International Atomic Energy Agency paper IAEA-CN-36/ 345 (1977).Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, “Proposed Final Environmental Statement, Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor Program,” Document WASH-1535, December (1974).Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), Limits for Intakes of Radionuclides by Workers, ICRP Publication No. 30 ( Pergamon Press, New York, 1979 ).Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    W. J. Bair, R. C. Thompson: “Plutonium: Biomedical Research,” Science, 183, 715 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    U.S. Department of Energy, “Environment Impact Statement, Management of Commercially Generated Radioactive Waste,” Document DOE/EIS-0046F, Oc-tober (1980).Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Nuclear Regulatory Commission, “Final Environmental Statement on the Trans-portation of Radioactive Material by Air and Other Modes,” Document NUREG- 0170 (1977).Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    R. M. Jefferson, H. R. Yoshimura: “Crash Testing of Nuclear Fuel Shipping Containers,” Sandia National Lab Report SAND 77 - 1462 (1978).Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    R. P. Sandoval, G. J. Newton: “A Safety Assessment of Spent Fuel Trans-portation Through Urban Regions,” Sandia National Laboratory Report SAND 81–2147 (1981); R. P. Sandoval, “Safety Assessment of Spent Fuel Transport in an Extreme Environment,” Nuclear and Chemical Waste Management, 3, 5 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    A. Parachini: “Study Finds Tanker Trucks a Highway Danger,” Los Angeles Times, May 21 (1982).Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    C. Bliss etal.: “Accidents and Unscheduled Events Associated with Non-nuclear Energy Resources and Technology,” Mitre Corp-EPA Report PB-265 398, p. 65 (1981) P. Gleich, “Health and Safety Effects of Coal Transportation,” Energy, 614 (1981).Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Z. A. Medvedev: New Scientist, 72, 264 (1976); 72, 692 (1976); 74, 761 (1977); 76, 352 (1977).Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    L. Tumerman: quoted by W. E. Farrell, New York Times, December 9, 8 (1976).Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    J. R. Trabalka, L. D. Eyman, S. I. Auerbach: “Analysis of the 1957–58 Soviet Nuclear Accident,” Science, 209, 345 (18 July 1980 ).Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    D. M. Soran, D. B. Stillman: “An Analysis of the Alleged Kyshtym Disaster,” Los Alamos National Lab Report LA-9217-MS (1981).Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    S. McCracken: The War Against the Atom ( Basic Books, New York, 1982 ).Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Encyclopedia of Science (article on Uraniuim) (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1971).Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    J. Cavallaro, A. W. Deurbrouck, H. Schultz, G. A. Gibbon: “Washability and Analytical Evaluation of Potential Pollution from Trace Elements in Coal,” Environmental Protection Agency Report EPA-600/7-78–038, March (1978); H. J. Gluskoter, “Trace Elements in Coal; Occurrence and Distribution,” EPA Report EPA-600/7-77–064 (1977); C. T. Ford, “Evaluation of the Effect of Coal Cleaning on Fugitive Elements,” Bituminous Coal Research Lab Draft Report L-1082 (1980).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Bernard L. Cohen 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bernard L. Cohen

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations