Immunity in Schistosomiasis: A Holistic View

  • Raymond T. Damian
Part of the Contemporary Topics in Immunobiology book series (CTI, volume 12)

Abstract

Schistosomes are parasites of ancient lineage. Mammalian and avian schistosomes, in the family Schistosomatidae, are members of a natural, monophyletic group of digenetic trematodes, the superfamily Schistosomatoidea, which also includes other families of blood flukes found in lower vertebrates (LaRue, 1957). These are the Aporocotylidae and Sanguinicolidae in fishes and the Spirorchiidae in reptiles. Byrd (1939) has suggested that the Aporocotylidae are the most primitive of the blood flukes, later giving rise to the Spirorchiidae (and Sanguinicolidae), which then gave rise to the schistosomes. Blood flukes probably evolved as such in the Permian (G. M. Davis, personal communication, 1982), which means they have had something on the order of 230−280 × 106 years in which to perfect survival tactics appropriate to their intravascular location in their vertebrate hosts and (of particular interest to this readership) their coexistence with their vertebrate host’s immune system.

Keywords

Biomass Permian Migration Manifold Polysaccharide 

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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Raymond T. Damian
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ZoologyUniversity of GeorgiaAthensUSA

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