Immunoendocrinology : Endocrine Aspects of Autoimmune Disease

  • Norman Talal


There are important bidirectional relationships between the immune and endocrine systems (Talal, 1978). Our laboratory became interested in these relationships through investigations seeking an explanation for the marked female predominance of autoimmune disorders such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The female to male ratio in SLE is 15:1 during the childbearing ages and decreases to 2:1 after menopause (Talal, 1979). Furthermore, in Klinefelter’s syndrome (XXY) in which genetic males develop gynecomastia and sparse body hair, there is an increased incidence of autoimmune disorders such as SLE and myasthenia gravis (Michalski et al., 1978). These clinical observations led us to speculate that sex hormones might play an important role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune disease.


Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Murine Lupus Human Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Thymic Epithelium Endocrine Aspect 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • Norman Talal
    • 1
  1. 1.Medical CentreClinical Division ImmunologySan FranciscoUSA

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