Marrow Regulating Factors (MRF) and Radiation Chimeras : A Model for Bone Marrow-Directed Immunity

  • Walter Pierpaoli
  • Georges J. M. Maestroni


The bone marrow microenvironment still constitutes a completely unexplored continent in spite of the fact that, in adult organisms, the bone marrow is the principal hemopoietic organ and that lympho-hemopoiesis represents the vital and ultimate result of a finely modulated course of proliferative and differentiative events. The bone marrow is populated by a huge variety of cells of very different embryologic origin (bone, nerve, endothelial, reticular, hemopoietic) which live in close contact and show very different stages of maturation. Signals of disparate origin and character (neural, hormonal, chemical mediators, blood pressure variations, temperature, oxygen tension, ionic changes, pH, a.o.) are all detected, elaborated and transmitted in the bone marrow. We know practically nothing of the complexity, significance and functions of this ancient organ, except that it delivers mature cells to the lymphatic tissues and to the blood and that some of these cells (B cells) are relevant for synthesis of antibodies (Kelemen et al., 1979; Wolf, 1979; Lichtman, 1981).


Bone Marrow Bone Marrow Cell Allogeneic Bone Marrow Bone Marrow Microenvironment Total Lymphoid Irradiation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Blume, K.G., Beatler, E., Bross, K.J., 1980, Bone marrow ablation and allogeneic marrow transplantation in acute leukemia, N. Engl. J. Med., 302:1041.Google Scholar
  2. Kelemen, E., Calvo, W., and Fliedner, T.M., 1979, “Atlas of human hemopoietic development,” Springer-Verlag, Berlin.Google Scholar
  3. Krown, S.E., Coico, R., Scheid, M.P., Fernandes, G., and Good, R.A., 1981, Immune function in fully allogeneic mouse bone.marrow chimeras, Clin. Immunol. Immunopathol., 19:268.Google Scholar
  4. Lichtman, M.A., 1981, The untrastructure of the hemopoietic environment of the marrow: A review, Exp. Hematol., 9:391.Google Scholar
  5. Maestroni, G.J.M., and Pierpaoli, W., 1980, Factor(s) elaborated by bone marrow that promote persistent engraftment of xenogeneic and semiallogeneic marrow, J. Clin. & Lab. Immunol., 4:189.Google Scholar
  6. Maestroni, G.J.M., and Pierpaoli, W., 1981, Pharmacological control of the hormonally mediated immune response, in: “Psychoneuro-immunology,” R. Ader, ed., Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  7. Maestroni, G.J.M., Pierpaoli, W., and Zinkernagel, R.M., Immunoreactivity of long-lived H-2 incompatible irradiation chimeras, submitted for publication.Google Scholar
  8. Newburger, P.E., Latt, S.A., Pesando, G.M., Gustashaw, K., Powers, M., Chaganti, R.S.K., and O’Reilly, R.J., 1981, Leukemia relapse in donor cells after allogeneic bone-marrow transplantation, N. Engl. J. Med., 304:712.Google Scholar
  9. Norin, A.J., Emeson, E.E., and Veith, F.J., 1981, Long-term survival of murine allogeneic bone marrow chimeras: effect of anti-lymphocyte serum and bone marrow dose, J. Immunol., 126:428.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Pierpaoli, W., 1981, Integrated phylogenetic and ontogenetic evolution of neuroendocrine and identity-defence, immune functions, in: “Psychoneuroimmunology,” R. Ader, ed., Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  11. Pierpaoli, W., and Maestroni, G.J.M., 1977, Pharmacological control of the immune response by blockade of the early hormonal changes following antigen injection, Cell. Immunol., 31:355.Google Scholar
  12. Pierpaoli, W., and Maestroni, G.J.M., 1978, Pharmacological control of the hormonally modulate immune response. II. Blockade of antibody production by a combination of drugs acting on neuroendocrine functions. Its prevention by gonadotropins and corti-cotrophin, Immunology, 34:419.Google Scholar
  13. Pierpaoli, W., and Maestroni, G.J.M., 1978, Pharmacologic controlGoogle Scholar
  14. of the hormonally modulated immune response. III. Prolongation of allogeneic skin graft rejection and prevention of runt disease by a combination of drugs acting on neuroendocrine functions, J. Immunol., 120:1600.Google Scholar
  15. Pierpaoli, W., and Maestroni, G.J.M., 1980, The facilitation of enduring engraftment of homologous bone marrow and avoidance disease in mice, Cell. Immunol., 52:62.Google Scholar
  16. Pierpaoli, W., and Maestroni, G.J.M., 1980, Induction of enduringGoogle Scholar
  17. allogeneic bone marrow chimerism in rabbits via soluble marrow-derived components, Immunol. Let., 1: 244.Google Scholar
  18. Pierpaoli, W., and Maestroni, G.J.M., Enduring allogeneic and xenogeneic hemopoietic engraftment via marrow-derived regulating factors (MRF), in: “Organ Transplantation, Present State, Future Goals,” S. Slavin, ed., Elsevier-North-Holland Biomedical Press B.V., Amsterdam, in press.Google Scholar
  19. Pierpaoli, W., Maestroni, G.J.M., and Sache, E., 1981, Enduring allogeneic marrow engraftment via non-specific bone marrow derived regulating factors (MRF), Cell. Immunol., 57:219.Google Scholar
  20. Slavin, S., Strober, S., Fuks, Z., and Kaplan, H., 1977, Induction of specific tissue transplantation tolerance using fractionated total lymphoid irradiation in adult mice: long-term survival of allogeneic bone marrow and skin grafts, J. Exp. Med., 146:34.Google Scholar
  21. Storb, R., Weiden, P.L., Prentice, R., Buckner, C.D., Clift, R.A., Einstein, A.B., Fefer, A., Johnson F.L., Lerner, K.G., Neiman, P.E., Sanders, J.E., and Thomas, E.E., 1977, Aplastic anemia (AA) treated by allogeneic marrow transplantation: the Seattle experience, Transplant. Proc., 9:181.Google Scholar
  22. Wolf, N.S., 1979, The haemopoietic microenvironment, Clin. Haematol. 8:469.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • Walter Pierpaoli
    • 1
  • Georges J. M. Maestroni
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute for Integrative Biomedical ResearchLohwisstrasse 50EbmatingenSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations