Advertisement

Raising the Yield Potential: by Selection or Design?

  • L. T. Evans
Part of the Basic Life Sciences book series (BLSC, volume 26)

Abstract

The most appropriate measure of yield has changed in the past, and may well continue to do so as agriculture itself evolves. The earlier criterion of number of grains harvested per grain sown has been largely displaced by yield per hectare per crop, which is the basis of the following discussion. But in multiple cropping sys-tems, especially in the tropics, yield per hectare per day is becoming ever more important, while yields per unit of applied energy or water or phosphorus or labor are also important considerations.

Keywords

Photosynthetic Rate Harvest Index Dark Respiration Spring Barley Unit Leaf Area 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Austin, R.B. 1978. Actual and potential yields of wheat and barley in the United Kingdom. ADAS Quart. Rev. 29: 76.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Austin, R.B., J. Bingham, R.D. Blackwell, L.T. Evans, M.A. Ford, C.L. Morgan, and M. Taylor. 1980. Genetic improvements in winter wheat yields since 1900 and associated physiological changes. J. Agric. Sci. Camb. 94: 675.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Austin, R.B., C.L. Morgan, M.A. Ford, and S.G. Bhagwat. 1982. Flag leaf photosynthesis of Triticum aestivum and related diploid and tetraploid species. Ann. Bot. 49: 177.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Barker, R., S.K. de Datta, K.A. Gomez, and R.W. Herdt. Phillipines 1974, 1975, 1976. 1977. In Constraints to High Yields on Asian Farms, 121. Los Banos: IRRI.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Boerma, H.R. 1979. Comparison of past and recently developed soybean cultivars in maturity groups VI, VII and VIII. Crop Sci. 19: 611.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Buttery, B.R., R.I. Buzzell, and W.I. Findlay. 1981. Relationships between photosynthetic rate, bean yield and other characters in field grown cultivars of soybean. Can. J. Plant Sci. 61: 191.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cook, M.G., and L.T. Evans. 1978. Effect of relative size and distance of competing sinks on the distribution of phytosynthetic assimilates in wheat. Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 5: 495.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cook, M.G., and L.T. Evans. Some physiological aspects of the domestication and improvement of rice (Oryza spp.). Field Crops Research (in press).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Crosbie, T.M., and J.J. Mock. 1981. Changes in physiological traits associated with grain yield improvement in three maize breeding programs. Crop Sci. 21: 255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Crosbie, T.M., R.B. Pearce, and J.J. Mock. 1981. Recurrent phenotypic selection for high and low photosynthesis in two maize populations. Crop Sci. 21: 736.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Van Dobben, W.H. 1962. Influence of temperature and light conditions on dry matter distribution, development rate, and yield in arable crops. Neth. J. Agric. Sci. 10: 377.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Donald, C.M. 1981. Competitive plants, communal plants, and yield in wheat crops. In Wheat ScienceToday and Tomorrow, 223. L.T. Evans and W.J. Peacock, eds. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Duncan, C.M., D.E. McCloud, R.L. McGraw, and K.J. Boote. 1978. Physiological aspects of peanut yield improvement. Crop Sci. 18: 1015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Duvick, D.N. 1977. Genetic rates of gain in hybrid maize yields during the past 40 years. Maydica 22: 187.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Evans, L.T. 1980. Response to challenge: William Farrer and the making of wheats. J. Aust. Inst. Agric. Sci. 46: 3.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Evans, L.T. 1981. Yield improvement in wheat: empirical or analytical? In Wheat ScienceToday and Tomorrow, 203. L.T. Evans and W.J. Peacock, eds. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Evans, L.T., and S.K. de Datta. 1979. The relation between irradiance and grain yield of irrigated rice in the tropics, as influenced by cultivar, nitrogen fertilizer application and month of planting. Field Crops Res. 2: 1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Evans, L.T., and R.L. Dunstone. 1970. Some physiological aspects of evolution in wheat. Aust. J. Biol. Sci. 23: 725.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Evans, L.T., R.L. Dunstone, H.M. Rawson, and R.F. Williams. 1970. The phloem of the wheat stem in relation to requirements for assimilate by the ear. Aust. J. Biol. Sci. 23: 743.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Fischer, K.S., and A.F.E. Palmer. Maize. In Potential Productivity of Field Crops under Different Environments. Los Banos: IRRI (in press).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Fischer, R.A., and Z. Kertesz. 1976. Harvest index in spaced populations and grain weight in microplots as indicators of yielding ability in spring wheat. Crop Sci. 16: 55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Frey, K.J. 1981. Capabilities and limitations of conventional plant breeding. In Genetic Engineering for Crop Improvement, 15. K.O. Rachie and J.M. Lyman, eds. New York: Rockefeller Foundation.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Gale, M.D., J. Edrich, and F.G.H. Lupton. 1974. Photosynthetic rates and the effects of applied gibberellin in some dwarf, semi-dwarf and tall wheat varieties (Triticum aestivum). J. Agric. Sci. Camb. 83: 43.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Gay, S., D.B. Egli, and D.A. Reicosky. 1980. Physiological aspects of yield improvement in soybeans. Agron J. 72: 387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Gifford, R.M., and L.T. Evans. 1981. Photosynthesis, carbon partitioning, and yield. Ann. Rev. Plant Physiol. 32: 485.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Harrison, S.A., H.R. Boerma, and D.A. Ashley. 1981. Heritability of canopy-apparent photosynthesis and its relationship to seed yield in soybeans. Crop Sci. 21: 222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hart, R.H., R.B. Pearce, N.J. Chatterton, G.E. Carlson, D.K. Barnes, and C.H. Hanson. 1978. Alfalfa yield, specific leaf weight, CO2 exchange rate and morphology. Crop Sci. 18: 649.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Housley, T.L., and D.M. Peterson. 1982. Oat stem vascular size in relation to kernel number and weight I. Crop Sci. 22: 259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    ICRISAT. Annual Report 1979/80, p. 53.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Jensen, N.F. 1978. Limits to growth in world food production. Science 201: 317.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Jones, H.G. 1977. Transpiration in barley lines with differing stomatal frequencies. J. Exp. Bot. 28: 162.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Khan, M.A., and S. Tsunoda. 1970. Evolutionary trends in leaf photosynthesis and related leaf characters among cultivated wheat species and its wild relatives. Jap. J. Breed. 20: 133.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    King, R.W., I.F. Wardlaw, and L.T. Evans. 1967. Effect of assimilate utilization on photosynthetic rate in wheat. Planta (Berl.) 77: 261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Lawes, D.A. 1977. Yield improvement in spring oats. J. Agric. Sci. Camb. 89: 751.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Lloyd, N.D.H., and D.T. Canvin. 1977. Photosynthesis and photorespiration in sunflower selections. Can. J. Bot. 55: 3006.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Lush, W.M., and H.M. Rawson. 1979. Effects of domestication and region of origin on leaf gas exchange in cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata L. ).Photosynthetica 13: 419.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    MacKey, J. 1979. Genetic potentials for improved yield. In Proc. Workshop on Agricultural Potentiality Directed by Nutritional Needs, 121. S. Rajki, ed. Budapest: Akad. Kiado.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Mahon, J.D. 1982. Field evaluation of growth and nitrogen fixation in peas selected for high and low photosynthetic CO2 exchange. Can. J. Plant Sci. 62: 5.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Milford, G.F.J., P.V. Biscoe, K.W. Jaggard, R.K. Scott, and A.P. Draycott. 1980. Physiological potential for increasing yields of sugar beet. In Opportunities for Increasing Crop Yields, 71. R.G. Hurd, P.V. Biscoe, and C. Dennis, eds. Boston: Pitman.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Moss, D.N., and R.B. Musgrave. 1971. Photosynthesis and crop production. Adv. Agron. 23: 317.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Peet, M.M., A. Bravo, D.H. Wallace, and J.L. Ozbun. 1977. Photosynthesis, stomatal resistance, and enzyme activities in relation to yield of field grown dry bean varieties. Crop Sci. 17: 287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Rachie, R.O., and J.M. Lyman. 1981. Preface to Genetic Engineering for Crop Improvement. New York: Rockefeller Foundation.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Riggs, T.J., P.R. Hanson, N.D. Start, D.M. Miles, C.L. Morgan, and M.A. Ford. 1981. Comparison of spring barley varieties grown in England and Wales between 1880 and 1980. J. Agric. Sci. Camb. 97: 599.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Robson, M.J. 1980. A physiologist’s approach to raising the potential yield of the grass crop through breeding. In Opportunities for Increasing Crop Yields, 33. R.G. Hurd, P.V. Biscoe, and C. Dennis, eds. Boston: Pitman.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Robson, M.J. 1982. The growth and carbon economy of selection lines of Lolium perenne cv. S23 with differing ratés of dark respiration I. Ann. Bot. 49: 321.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Russell, W.A. 1974. Comparative performance for maize hybrids representing different eras of maize breeding. Proc. 29 Ann. Corn and Sorghum Res. Conf., 84.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Sandfaer, J., and V. Haar. 1975. Barley stripe mosaic virus and the yield of old and new barley varieties. Z. Pflanzenzucht 74: 211.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Silvey, V. 1978. The contribution of new varieties to increasing cereal yield in England and Wales. J. Natl. Inst. Agric. Bot. 14: 367.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Silvey, V. 1981. The contribution of new wheat, barley and oat varieties to increasing yield in England and Wales 1947–1978. J. Natl. Inst. Agric. Bot. 15: 399.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Sofield, I., L.T. Evans, M.G. Cook, and I.F. Wardlaw. 1977. Factors influencing the rate and duration of grain filling in wheat. Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 3: 785.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Sofield, I., I.F. Wardlaw, L.T. Evans, and S.Y. Zee. 1977. Nitrogen, phosphorus and water contents during grain development and maturation in wheat. Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 4: 799.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Strobel, G.A. 1980. Potentials for improving crop production. In Genetic Improvement of Crops: Emergent Techniques, 3. I. Rubenstein, B. Gengenbach, R.L. Phillips, and C.E. Green, eds. Minneapolis: Univ. Minnesota.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Thompson, L.M. 1975. Weather variability, climatic change, and grain production. Science 188: 535.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Wiebold, W.J., R.M. Shibles, and D.E. Green. 1981. Selection for apparent photosynthesis and related leaf traits in early generations of soybeans. Crop Sci. 21: 969.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Wilson, D. 1982. Response to selection for dark respiration rate of mature leaves of Lolium perenne and its effects on growth of young plants and simulated swards. Ann. Bot. 49: 303.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Wilson, D., and J.G. Jones. 1982. Effect of selection for dark respiration rate of mature leaves on crop yields of Lolium perenne cv. S23. Ann. Bot. 49: 313.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. T. Evans
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Plant IndustryCSIROCanberraAustralia

Personalised recommendations