Advertisement

Mutations at the Shrunken Locus in Maize Caused by the Controlling Element DS

  • N. Fedoroff
  • D. Chaleff
  • U. Courage-Tebbe
  • H.-P. Döring
  • M. Geiser
  • P. Starlinger
  • E. Tillmann
  • E. Weck
  • W. Werr
Part of the NATO Advanced Science Institutes Series book series (NSSA, volume 63)

Abstract

Controlling elements in maize are transposable elements that cause insertion mutations, mediate chromosomal rearrangements and provide sites of chromosome breakage. Several distinct families of controlling elements have been identified, three of which have been studied in substantial detail genetically (for reviews, see McClintock, 1951, 1956b, 1965; Fincham and Sastry, 1974; Nevers and Saedler, 1977; Starlinger, 1980 and Fedoroff, 1982). Among the best characterized is the Activator-Dissociation family of elements that is responsible for the mutations at the Shrunken (Sh) locus described here (McClintock, 1951). Activator (Ac) is an element capable of autonomous transposition, while the Dissociation (Ds) element transposes only in the presence of the autonomously-transposing Ac element (McClintock, 1951). Ds was first identified and named for its ability to provide a specific site of chromosome breakage and acentric-dicentric chromosome formation, a property that is also manifested only in the presence of the Ac element (McClintock, 1946, 1947). Transposition of Ds to a locus affecting plant or kernel morphology can result in a recessive mutant phenotype (McClintock, 1951, 1956b). Ds insertion mutations are stable in the absence of Ac, but in its presence revert or further mutate both somatically and germinally.

Keywords

Chromosome Breakage Carnegie Inst Sucrose Synthetase Immature Kernel Rearrangement Breakpoint 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Burr, B., and Burr, F., 1980, Detection of changes in maize DMA at the Shrunken locus due to the intervention of Ds elements, Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol., 45:463.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Burr, B., and Burr, F., 1981, Controlling-element events at the Shrunken locus in maize, Genetics, 98:143.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Burr, B., and Burr, F., 1982, Ds controlling elements of maize at the Shrunken locus are large and dissimilar insertions, Cell, 29:977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chaleff, D., Mauvais, J., McCormick, S., Shure, M., Wessler, S. and Fedoroff, N., 1981, Controlling elements in maize, Carnegie Inst. Wash. Year Book, 80:158.Google Scholar
  5. Chourey, P.S., 1981, Genetic control of sucrose synthetase in maize endosperm, Mol. Gen. Genet., 184:373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chourey, P.S. and Nelson, O.E., 1976, The enzymatic deficiency conditioned by the shrunken-1 mutations in maize, Biochem. Gen., 14:1041.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Courage-Tebbe, U., Döring, H.-P., Geiser, M., Starlinger, P., Tillmann, E., Week, E., Werr, W., 1982, Two Partial copies of Heterogeneous Transposable Element Ds Cloned from the Shrunken Locus in Zea mays L., in “Manipulation and Expression of Genes in Eukaryotes”, P. Nagley, A.W. Ninnane, W.J. Peacock, and J.A. Pateman, eds., Academic Press, Sydney, in press.Google Scholar
  8. Döring, H.-P., Geiser, M. and Starlinger, P., 1981, Transposable element Ds. at the shrunken locus in Zea mays, Mol. Gen. Genet., 184:377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Fedoroff, N., 1982, Transposable elements in maize, in “Mobile Genetic Elements”, J. Shapiro, ed., in press.Google Scholar
  10. Fedoroff, N., McCormick, S., and Mauvais, J., 1980, Molecular studies on the controlling elements of maize, Carnegie Inst. Wash. Year Book, 79:51.Google Scholar
  11. Fedoroff, N., Mauvais, J., and Chaleff, D., 1982, Molecular studies on mutations at the Shrunken locus in maize caused by the controlling elements Ds, J. Mol. Appl. Gen., in press.Google Scholar
  12. Fedoroff, N., Chaleff, D., Mauvais, J., Shure, M. and Wessler, S., 1982, Molecular studies on maize genes with controlling element mutations, Carnegie Inst. Wash. Year Book 81: in press.Google Scholar
  13. Fincham, J.R.S., and Sastry, G.R.K., 1974, Controlling elements in maize, Ann. Rev. Genet., 8:15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Geiser, M., Döring, H.-P., Wöstemeyer, Behrens U., Tillmann, and Starlinger, P., 1980, A cDNA clone from Zea mays endosperm sucrose synthetase mRNA, Nucl. Acids Res., 8:6175.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. McClintock, B., 1946, Maize genetics, Carnegie Inst. Wash. Year Book, 45:176.Google Scholar
  16. McClintock, B., 1947, Cytogenetic studies of maize and Neurospora. Carnegie Inst. Wash. Year Book 46:146.Google Scholar
  17. McClintock, B., 1951, Chromosome organization and genie expression, Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol., 16:13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. McClintock, B., 1952, Mutable loci in maize, Carnegie Inst. Wash. Year Book, 51:212.Google Scholar
  19. McClintock, B., 1953, Mutation in maize, Carnegie Inst. Wash. Year Book, 52:227.Google Scholar
  20. McClintock, B., 1954, Mutations in maize and chromosomal aberrations in Neurospora, Carnegie Inst. Wash. Year Book, 53:254.Google Scholar
  21. McClintock, B., 1955, Controlled mutation in maize, Carnegie Inst. Wash. Year Book, 54:245.Google Scholar
  22. McClintock, B., 1956a, Mutation in maize, Carnegie Inst. Wash. Year Book, 55:323.Google Scholar
  23. McClintock, B., 1956b, Controlling elements and the gene, Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol., 21:197.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. McClintock, B., 1965, The control of gene action in maize, Brookhaven Symp. Biol., 18:162.Google Scholar
  25. McCormick, S., Mauvais, J., and Fedoroff, N., 1982, Evidence that the two sucrose synthetase genes in maize are related, Mol. Gen. Genet., in press.Google Scholar
  26. Nevers, P., and Saedler, H., 1977, Transposable genetic elements as agents of gene instability and chromosome rearrangement, Nature, 268:109.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Su, J.-C., and Preiss, J., 1978, Purification and properties of sucrose synthetase from maize kernels, Plant Physiol., 61:389.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Starlinger, P., 1980, A reexamination of McClintock’s “Controlling Elements” in maize in view of recent advances in molecular biology, in “Genome Organization and Expression in Plants”, C.J. Leaver, ed., Plenum Publishing Corp. New York.Google Scholar
  29. Wöstemeyer, J., Behrens, U., Merckelbach, A., Müller, M., and Starlinger, P., 1981, Translation of Zea mays endosperm sucrose synthetase mRNA in vitro, Eur. J. Biochem., 114:39.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • N. Fedoroff
    • 1
  • D. Chaleff
    • 1
  • U. Courage-Tebbe
    • 2
  • H.-P. Döring
    • 2
  • M. Geiser
    • 2
  • P. Starlinger
    • 2
  • E. Tillmann
    • 2
  • E. Weck
    • 2
  • W. Werr
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of EmbryologyCarnegie Institute of WashingtonBaltimoreUSA
  2. 2.Institut für GenetikUniversität zu KölnKöln 41Federal Republic of Germany

Personalised recommendations