Neuroendocrine Studies in Schizophrenia

  • Ghanshyam N. Pandey
  • Regina Casper
  • John M. Davis
  • Syed I. Ali


An alteration in the function of dopamine (DA) has been related to the pathophysiology of schizophrenic illness and has led to the so-called “dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia.” Although there has been only indirect evidence to support this hypothesis (see Meltzer and Stahl, 1976), this has stimulated extensive clinical research for investigating the role of DA in schizophrenic illness. The initial research was directed either toward studying the levels of DA and its metabolites in urine, plasma, and CSF or examining the enzymes associated with the biosynthesis and metabolism of DA in schizophrenic patients. In particular, these studies attempted to elucidate the role of presynaptic dopaminergic mechanisms in schizophrenia. However, in recent years the role of postsynaptic mechanisms such as DA receptor response or DA receptor density has been studied in patients with schizophrenic illness. Such studies have been primarily stimulated by the observations that the potency of antipsychotic drugs is related to their ability to block DA receptors in the brain.


Schizophrenic Patient Tardive Dyskinesia Growth Hormone Release Acute Schizophrenia Chronic Schizophrenic Patient 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Angrist, B., Sathananthan, G., and Gershon, S., 1973, Behavioral effects of l-DOPA in schizophrenic patients, Psychopharmacologia 31:1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Angrist, B., Sathananthan, G., Wilk, S., and Gershon, S., 1974a, Amphetamine psychosis: Behavioral and biochemical aspects, J. Psychiatr. Res. 11:13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Angrist, B., Lee, H. K., and Gershon, S., 1974b, The antagonism of amphetamine-induced symptomatology by a neuroleptic, Am. J. Psychiatry 131:817.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Besser, G. M., Butler, P. W. P., Landon, J., and Rees, L., 1969, Influence of amphetamines on plasma corticosteroid and growth hormone levels in man, Br. Med. J. IV:528.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Blackard, W. G., and Heidingsfelder, S. A., 1968, Adrenergic receptor control mechanism for growth hormone secretion, J. Clin. Invest. 47:1407.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bowers, M. B., Jr., 1973, 5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and homovanillic acid (HVA) following probenecid in acute psychotic patients treated with phenothiazines, Psychopharmacologia 28:309.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Boyd, A. E., III. Lebovitz, H. E., and Pfeiffer, J. B., 1970, Stimulation of human growth hormone secretion by l-DOPA, N. Engl. J. Med. 283:1425.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brazeau, P., Vale, W., Burgus, R., Ling, N., Butcher, M., Rivier, J., and Guillemin, R., 1973, Hypothalamic polypeptide that inhibits the secretion of immunoreactive pituitary growth hormone, Science 179:77.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brown, W. A., Corriveau, D. P., and Ebert, M. H., 1978, Acute psychologic and neuroendocrine effects of dextroamphetamine and methylphenidate, Psychopharmacology 58:189.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Camanni, F., Massara, F., Belforte, L., and Molinatti, G. M., 1975, Changes in plasma growth hormone levels in normal and acromegalic subjects following administration of 2-bromo-alpha-ergocryptine, J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 40:363.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Carenzi, A., Gillin, J. C., Guidotti, A., Schwartz, M. A., Trabucchi, M., and Wyatt, R. J., 1975, Dopamine-sensitive adenyl cyclase in human caudate nucleus: A study in control subjects and schizophrenic patients, Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 32:1056.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chase, T. N., Schnur, J. A., and Gordon, E. K., 1970, Cerebrospinal fluid monoamine catabolites in drug-induced extrapyramidal disorders, Neuropharmacology 9:265.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Checkley, S. A., 1980, Neuroendocrine tests of monoamine function in man: A review of basic theory and its application to the study of depressive illness, Psychol. Med. 10:35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Crow, T. J., Baker, H. F., Cross, A. J., Joseph, M. H., Lofthouse, R., Longden, A., Owen, F., Riley, G. J., Glover, V., and Killpack, W. S., 1979, Monoamine mechanisms in chronic schizophrenia: Post-mortem neurochemical findings, Br. J. Psychiatry 134:249.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Ettigi, P., Nair, N. P. V., Lal, S., Cervantes, P., and Guyda, H., 1976, Effect of apomorphine on growth hormone and prolactin secretion in schizophrenic patients, with or without oral dyskinesia, withdrawn from chronic neuroleptic therapy, J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 39:870.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Garver, D. L., 1981, Patterns of illness in lithium responsive patients, Scientific Proceedings of the American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
  17. Lal, S., De la Vega, C. E., Sourkes, T. L., and Friesen, H. G., 1973, Effect of apomorphine on growth hormone, prolactin, luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone levels in human serum, J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 37:719.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Lal, S., Guyda, H., and Bikadoroff, S., 1977, Effect of methylsergide and pimozide on apomor-phine-induced growth hormone secretion in men, J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 44:766.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lee, T., and Seeman, P., 1980, Elevation of brain neuroleptic/dopamine receptors in schizophrenia, Am. J. Psychiatry 137:191.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Lee, T., Seeman, P., Tourtellotte, W. W., Farley, I. J., and Hornykiewicz, O., 1978, Binding of 3H-neuroleptics and 3H-apormorphine in schizophrenic brains, Nature (London) 274:897.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. MacKay, A. V. P., Dobie, A., Bird, E. D., Spokes, E. G., Quik, M., and Iversen, L. L., 1978, 3H-spiperone binding in normal and schizophrenic postmortem human brain, Life Sci. 23:527.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. MacKay, A. V. P., Bird, E. D., Spokes, E. G., Rosser, M., Iversen, L. L., Creese, I., and Snyder, S. H., 1980, Dopamine receptors and schizophrenia: Drug effect or illness?, Lancet 11:915.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Martin, J. B., 1973, Neural regulation of growth hormone secretion, medical progress, N. Engl. J. Med. 288:1384.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Meltzer, H. Y., and Stahl, S. M., 1976, The dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia: A review, Schizophr. Bull. 2:19.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Meltzer, H. Y., Busch, D., and Fang, V. S., 1981, Hormones, dopamine receptors and schizophrenia, Psychoneuroendocrinology 6:17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Owen, F., Crow, T. J., Poulter, M., Cross, A. J., Longden, A., and Riley, G. J., 1978, Increased dopamine receptor sensitivity in schizophrenia, Lancet II:223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Pandey, G. N., Garvey, D. L., Tamminga, C., Ericksen, S., Ali, S. I., and Davis, J. M., 1977, Post-synaptic supersensitivity in schizophrenia, Am. J. Psychiatry 134:518.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Pandey, G. N., Casper, R. C., Davis, J. M., Ali, S. I., and Garver, D. L., 1979, Elevated Growth Hormone Response in Schizophrenia: Syllabus and Scientific Proceedings, American Psychiatric Association, p. 345.Google Scholar
  29. Post, R. M., Fink, E., Carpenter, W. T., Jr., and Goodwin, F. K., 1975, Cerebrospinal fluid amine metabolites in acute schizophrenia, Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 32:1063.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Randrup, A., and Munkvard, I., 1970, Biochemical, anatomical and psychological investigations of stereotyped behavior induced by amphetamines, in: Amphetamines and Related Compounds (E. Costa and S. Garattini, eds.), pp. 695–713, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  31. Rimon, R., Roos, B., Rakkolainen, V., and Alanen, Y., 1971, The content of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid and homovanillic acid in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with acute schizophrenia, J. Psychosom. Res. 15:375.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Rotrosen, J., Angrist, B. M., Gershon, S., Sachar, E. J., and Halpern, F. S., 1976, Dopamine receptor alteration in schizophrenia: Neuroendocrine evidence, Psychopharmacology 51:1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Rotrosen, J., Angrist, B., and Paquin, J., 1978, Neuroendocrine studies with dopamine agonists in schizophrenia, Psychopharmacol. Bull. 14:14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Seeman, P., 1981, Brain dopamine receptors, Pharmacol. Rev. 32:229.Google Scholar
  35. Seeman, P., Lee, T., Chau-Wong, M., and Wong, K., 1976, Antipsychotic drug doses and neuroleptic/dopamine receptors, Nature (London) 261:717.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Yaryura-Tobias, J. A., Wolpert, A., Dana, L., and Merlis, S., 1970, Action of l-DOPA in drug induced extrapyramidalism, Dis. Nerv. Syst. 31:60.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ghanshyam N. Pandey
    • 1
    • 2
  • Regina Casper
    • 1
    • 2
  • John M. Davis
    • 1
    • 2
  • Syed I. Ali
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of ResearchIllinois State Psychiatric InstituteChicagoUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychiatryUniversity of Illinois College of MedicineChicagoUSA
  3. 3.Department of ResearchIllinois State Psychiatric InstituteChicagoUSA

Personalised recommendations