Changes of Brain Monoamines in the Animal Model for Depression
Depression is the most fundamental psychosomatic reaction caused by various etiological factors of which some are known to be genetic, some are environmental, and some are of physical nature. The essence of depression, regardless of etiology, is a reduction of vital potency which is directly manifested by symptoms such as depressed mood, retardation of the psychic process, decrease of individual drives and general activity, and impairment of basic biological rhythms. On the basis of these fundamental symptoms, various kinds of individual personality reactions, namely self-depreciation, self-reproach, pessimistic thinking, hypochondriacal preoccupation, phobia, depersonalization and so on, can develop and make up diverse clinical pictures. Despite the variety of its clinical manifestations, depression is the most therapeutically accessible state by such biological treatments as antidepressants or electroconvulsive therapy. Accordingly, it may be indisputable that the basic symptoms of depression are brought about through a final common biological pathway irrespective of etiology.
KeywordsNerve Terminal Locus Coeruleus Estrous Cycle Median Eminence Vaginal Smear
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Fuxe, K., and Hökfelt, T., 1969, Catecholamines in the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland, in: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology (W. F. Ganong and L. Martini, eds.), pp. 47–96, Oxford University Press, London.Google Scholar
- Hatotani, N., Nomura, J., and Wakoh, T., 1978, Endocrinological studies on periodic psychoses, in: Perspectives in Endocrine Psychobiology (F. Brambilla, P. K. Bridges, E. Endröczi, and G. Heuser, eds.), pp. 423–465, Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, and Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
- McKinney, W. T., Jr., 1977, Biobehavioral models of depression in monkeys, in: Animal Models in Psychiatry and Neurology (I. Hanin and E. Usdin, eds.), pp. 117–126, Pergamon Press, Elmsford, N.Y.Google Scholar
- Richter, C. P., 1965, Biological Clocks in Medicine and Psychiatry, Thomas, Springfield.Google Scholar