Changes of Brain Monoamines in the Animal Model for Depression

  • Noboru Hatotani
  • Junichi Nomura
  • Isao Kitayama


Depression is the most fundamental psychosomatic reaction caused by various etiological factors of which some are known to be genetic, some are environmental, and some are of physical nature. The essence of depression, regardless of etiology, is a reduction of vital potency which is directly manifested by symptoms such as depressed mood, retardation of the psychic process, decrease of individual drives and general activity, and impairment of basic biological rhythms. On the basis of these fundamental symptoms, various kinds of individual personality reactions, namely self-depreciation, self-reproach, pessimistic thinking, hypochondriacal preoccupation, phobia, depersonalization and so on, can develop and make up diverse clinical pictures. Despite the variety of its clinical manifestations, depression is the most therapeutically accessible state by such biological treatments as antidepressants or electroconvulsive therapy. Accordingly, it may be indisputable that the basic symptoms of depression are brought about through a final common biological pathway irrespective of etiology.


Nerve Terminal Locus Coeruleus Estrous Cycle Median Eminence Vaginal Smear 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Noboru Hatotani
    • 1
  • Junichi Nomura
    • 1
  • Isao Kitayama
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychiatryMie University School of MedicineTsu, MieJapan

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