Beyond the Deficit Model

The Empowerment of Parents with Information and Informal Supports
  • Moncrieff Cochran
  • Frank Woolever


In an article entitled “Children and Families: 1984?” Urie Bronfenbrenner refers to George Orwell’s prophetic prediction of the destruction of free Western society and its basic institutions, including the family, by the year 1984. He goes on to argue that while Orwell may have picked the right year and outcome, he was wrong in attributing that outcome to human efficiency rather than human ineptitude. Bronfenbrenner sees the erosion of the power of the family and the child-rearing system as a product of public indifference, and he feels that we are failing to come to terms with some hard realities. The family intervention program described in this chapter is being carried out in an attempt to confront some of those realities.


Home Visit Informal Support Parenting Role Black Family Young Family 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Adana. B. N., Kinship in an urban setting. Chicago: Markham. 1968.Google Scholar
  2. Berger, P., & Neuhaus, R. To empower people: The role of mediating structures in public policy. Washington, D.C.: American Enterprise Institute for Public Police Research. 1977.Google Scholar
  3. Bronfenbrenner, U., The origins of alienation. Scientific American. 1974. 231 53–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bronfenbrenner, U., The ecology of human development: Experiments by nature and design. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. 1979. (a)Google Scholar
  5. Bronfenbrenner, U., Beyond the deficit model in child and family policy. Teachers and College Record, 1979, 81(1), 95–104. (b)Google Scholar
  6. Bronfenbrenner, U., Children and families: 1984? Social Science and Modern Society, 1981, 18 (2), 38–41.Google Scholar
  7. Bronfenbrenner, U., & Cochran, M. The comparative ecology of human development: A research proposal. Cornell university, 1976.Google Scholar
  8. Carnov. M., & Levin, H. The limits of educational reform. New York: Longman. 1976.Google Scholar
  9. Cochran, M., & Brassard, J. A. Child development and personal social networks. Child Development. 1979, 50, 601–616.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cochran, M., & Bronfenbrenner, U. Childrearing, parenthood and the world of work. In C. Kerr & J. Rosow (Eds.), Work in America: The decade ahead. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1979.Google Scholar
  11. Ftnrstenberg, F.. Jr., Unplanned parenthood. New York: Free Press, 1976.Google Scholar
  12. Gottlieb. B., The primary group as a supportive milieu: Applications to community psychology. American Journal of Community Psychology, 1979, 7 (5), 469–480.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gourash, N., Help-seeking: A review of the literature. American Journal of Community Psychology, 1978, 6 (5), 413–424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hoffman, L. W., Effects of maternal employment on the child: Review of the research. Development Psychology, 1974, 2. 204–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Karnes, M. S., Research and development program on preschool disadvantaged children: Final report. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Office of Education, 1969.Google Scholar
  16. Keniston, K., All our children: The American family tarder pressure. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovatu sich, 1977.Google Scholar
  17. Kriesberg, L., Mothers in poeverty:.A study of fatherless families. Chicago: Aldine. 1970.Google Scholar
  18. Lamb, M., (Ed.). The role of the father in child development. New York: Wiley, 1976.Google Scholar
  19. Levenstein, P., Cognitive growth in preschoolers through verbal interaction with mothers. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 1970, 40, 440–417.Google Scholar
  20. Ryan, W., Blaming the victim. New York: Pantheon Books, 1971.Google Scholar
  21. Stack, C., Allourkin: Strategies forsurvtval in a black conunronity. New York: Harper & Row. 1974.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • Moncrieff Cochran
    • 1
  • Frank Woolever
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Human Development and Family Studies, New York State College of Human EcologyCornell UniversityIthacaUSA

Personalised recommendations