Advertisement

Prompting Parents toward Constructivist Caregiving Practices

  • James C. Mancuso
  • Kenneth H. Handin

Abstract

Christopher now resides in a residential child care facility. He is quartered with and shares the daily activity of a group of four other 3- and 4-year old children. He proceeds through his days under the direction of various young, female child care workers, most of whom have had several years of college work. A not-uncommon interaction between Christopher and one of these child care workers will proceed as follows:

Setting: The worker is helping the young children in their attempt to scale a jungle gym network. The children are clamoring for a turn and for the worker’s help. She has managed to develop the rudiments of a working line up, so that the children will each have her help in the project. Christopher intrudes into the first position in the line. The original holder of that position objects. Christopher resolves his problem by pushing the objector out of his position.

Worker: Christopher, we’re taking turns. Please go to the back of the line.

Christopher: NO!

Worker: All right, no more climbs till Christopher goes to the back of the line.

Setting: There are many signs that the waiting children are aroused. Christopher does not move.

Worker: We’re waiting, Christopher.

Setting: Christopher, staring at worker, does not move. The worker takes a physical stance to indicate that she will not be moved. Christopher continues to stare. After a short pause, the worker moves toward Christopher. She reaches to take his arm. He flops to the ground. The worker bends to pick him up. He vigorously kicks her shoulder.

Worker (using a vocal delivery in the 80–90 decibel range): Christopher, you’re going to spend the next 15 minutes in the “time-out room.”

Setting: Christopher remains lying on the ground. The worker tries to move him toward the building containing the room. He refuses to locomote. He does kick and struggle to escape.

Christopher (shouting repeatedly): Get off me, fuckhead.

Setting: Another worker comes to share in helping Christopher to a dose of “time-out.”

Keywords

Parent Role Personal Construct Parent Behavioral Training Repertory Grid Child Care Worker 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adams-Webber, J. An analysis of the discriminant validity of several repertory grid indices. British Journal of Psychology, 1970, 61, 83–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aldrich, C. C., and Mancuso, J. C. Judgments of a child involved in accidental damage and responding differentially to adult reprimand. Perceptual and Motor Skills,1976, 43 1071–1082.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Atkeson, B., and Forehand, R. Parent behavioral training programs for problem children: An examination of studies using multiple outcome measures. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology,1978, 6,449–460CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Azrin, N. H., and Holz, W. C. Punishment. In W. K. Honnig (Ed.), Operant behavior. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1966.Google Scholar
  5. Bandura, A., and Walters, R. H. Social learning and personality development. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1963.Google Scholar
  6. Berkowitz, B. P., and Graziano, A. M. Training parents as behavior therapists: A review. Behavior Research and Therapy,1972, 10,197–317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Berlyne, D. A. Curiosity and learning. Motivation and Emotion, 1978, 2, 97–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bornstein, M. H., and Kessen, W. (Eds.). Psychological development from infancy. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1979.Google Scholar
  9. Bringuier, J. Conversations with Jean Piaget. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1980.Google Scholar
  10. Creer, T. L., Renne, E. M., Sc Christian, W. P. Unpredictable problems in applying social learning principles in a child care facility. Child Care Quarterly, 1978, 7, 142–255.Google Scholar
  11. Damon, W. (Ed.), Social cognition. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1978.Google Scholar
  12. Deci, E. E. Intrinsic motivation. New York: Plenum Press, 1975.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Eimer, B. N., Mancuso, J. C., and Lehrer, R. Children’s conceptions of perental reprimand: A stage developmental analysis. Unpublished manuscript, 1980.Google Scholar
  14. Fine, M. J. Parents vs. children. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1979.Google Scholar
  15. Forehand, R., Sc Atkeson, B. M. Generality of treatment effects with parents as therapist. Behavior Therapy, 1977, 8, 575–593.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Forehand, R., Sturgis, E. T., McMahon, R. J., Aguar, D., Green, K., Wells, K. C., and Bremner, J. Parental behavioral training to modify child noncompliance. Behavior Modification 1979, 3,3–25.Google Scholar
  17. Francis, R. G. The rhetoric of science: A methodological discussion of the two by two table. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1961.Google Scholar
  18. Gara, M. A., Sc Rosenberg, S. The identification of persons as supersets and subsets in free-response personality descriptions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,1979, 37,2161–2170.Google Scholar
  19. Glueck, S., and Glueck, E. T. Unravelling juvenile delinquency. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1950.Google Scholar
  20. Goocher, B. E. Behavior applications of an educateur model in child care. Child Care Quarterly,1975, 4,84–92.Google Scholar
  21. Greenley, J. R. Alternative views of the psychiatrist’s role. In T. Scheff (Ed.), Labelling madness. Englewood Cliffs, N. J.: Prentice Hall, 1975.Google Scholar
  22. Grossberg, S. How does a brain build a cognitive code? Psychological Review,1980, 87,1–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Handin, K. H. Se Mancuso, J. C. Perceptions of the function of reprimand. Journal of Social Psychology. 1980, 110,43–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hoffman, M. L. Empathy, role-taking, guilt, and development of altruistic motive. In T. Lickona (Ed.), Moral development and behavior. New York: Holt, Rinehart, Winston, 1976.Google Scholar
  25. Johnston, J. M. Punishment and human behavior. American Psychologist,1972, 27,1033–1054.Google Scholar
  26. Kahneman, D. Attention and effort. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1973.Google Scholar
  27. Kelly, G. A. The psychology of personal constructs. New York: W. W. Norton, 1955.Google Scholar
  28. Kohlberg, L. Stage and sequence: The cognitive developmental approach to socialization. In D. A. Goslin (Ed.), Handbook of socialization theory and research. New York: Rand McNally, 1969.Google Scholar
  29. Lindsley, D. B. Psychophysiology and motivation. In M. R. Jones (Ed.), Nebraska Symposium on Motivation: 1957. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1957Google Scholar
  30. Mancuso, J. C. Current motivational models in the elaboration of personal construct theory. In A. W. Landfield (Ed.), Nebraska symposium on motivation: Personal construct psychology. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1977.Google Scholar
  31. Mancuso, J. C. Reprimand: The construing of the rule violator’s construct system. In P. Stringer and D. Bannister (Eds.), Constructs of sociality and individuality. New York: Academic Press, 1979.Google Scholar
  32. Mancuso, J. C., and Adams-Webber, J. R. Anticipation as a constructive process: The fundamental postulate. In J. C. Mancuso and J. R. Adams-Webber (Eds.), The construing person. New York: Praeger, 1982.Google Scholar
  33. Mancuso, J. C., and Allen, D. A. Children’s perceptions of a transgressor’s socialization as a function of type of reprimand. Human Development, 1976, 19, 277–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Mancuso, J. C., andCeely, S. G. The self as memory processing. Cognitive Therapy and Research,1980 4,1–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Mancuso, J. C., and Handin, K. H. Comparing high and low-rated child care worker’s attributions of reprimand effectiveness. Child Care Quarterly,1980, 9(4), 275–288. (a)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Mancuso, J. C., and Handin, K. H. Training parents to construe the child’s construing. In A. W. Landfield and L. M. Leitner (Eds.), Personal construct psychology. New York: Wiley, 1980. (b)Google Scholar
  37. Mancuso, J. C., Morrison, J. K., Sc Aldrich, C. C. Developmental changes in social-moral perception: Some factors affecting children’s evaluations and predictions of the behavior of a “transgressor.” Journal of Genetic Psychology,1978, 132,121–136.Google Scholar
  38. Mancuso, J. C., and Sarbin, T. R. The self-narrative in the enactment of roles. In T. R. Sarbin and K. Scheibe (Eds.), Studies in social identity. New York: Praeger, 1983.Google Scholar
  39. Mandler, J. M., 8c Johnson, N. S. Remembrance of things parsed: Story structure and recall. Cognitive Psychology,1977, 9,111–151Google Scholar
  40. Norton, G. R. Parenting. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1977.Google Scholar
  41. Ornstein, P. A. (Ed.). Memory development in children. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1978.Google Scholar
  42. Parke, R. D. Rules, roles, and resistance to deviation. In A. W. Pick (Ed.), Minnesota Symposia on Child Psychology (Vol. 8 ). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1974.Google Scholar
  43. Patterson, G. R. Interventions for boys with conduct problems: Multiple settings, treatments, and criteria. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology,1974, 42,471–481.Google Scholar
  44. Pepper, S. C. World hypothesis. Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press, 1942. Piaget, J. The child and reality. New York: Viking Press, 1974.Google Scholar
  45. Powers, W. T. Behavior: The control of perception. Chicago: Aldine, 1973.Google Scholar
  46. Rosch, E. Principles of categorization. In E. Rosch Sc B. B. Lloyd (Eds.), Cognition and categorization. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1978.Google Scholar
  47. Rosenberg, S. New approaches to the analysis of personal constructs in person perception. In A. W. Landfield (Ed.) Nebraska symposium on motivation: Personal construct psychology. Lincoln, Neb.: University of Nebraska Press, 1977.Google Scholar
  48. Rychlak, J. E. Personality and psychotherapy. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin, 1981.Google Scholar
  49. Sarbin, T. R. Contextualism: A World View for Modern Psychology. In A. W. Landfield (Ed.), Nebraska Symposium on Motivation. (Vol. 24 ). Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press, 1977.Google Scholar
  50. Sarbin, T. R., 8c Mancuso, J. C. Schizophrenia: Medical diagnosis or moral judgment. Elmsford, N. Y.: Pergamon, 1980.Google Scholar
  51. Sattath, S., Sc Tversky, A. Additive similarity trees, Psychometrika,1977, 42,319–345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Sears, R. R., Maccoby, E. E., and Levin, H. Patterns of child rearing. Evanston, Illinois: Row, Peterson, 1957.Google Scholar
  53. Selman, R. L. The growth of interpersonal understanding. New York: Academic Press, 1980.Google Scholar
  54. Sigel, I. E. The distancing hypothesis: A causal hypothesis for the aquisition of representational thought. In M. R. Jones (Ed.), Miami symposium on the prediction of behavior: The effect of early experience. Coral Gables, Florida: University of Miami Press, 1970.Google Scholar
  55. Sigel, I. E. Constructivism and teacher education. The Elementary School Journal,1978, 78,333–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Sigel, I. E., Sc McGillicuddy-DeLisi, A. V. Parental distancing, beliefs and children’s representational competence within the family context. Princeton, New Jersey: Educational Testing Service, 1980.Google Scholar
  57. Sigel, I. E., McGillicuddy-DeLisi, A. V., Sc Johnson, J. E. The effects of spacing and birth order on problem-solving competence of pre-school children, Report prepared for Office of Population Research, National Institute of Health, 1980.Google Scholar
  58. Simpson, R. L. Behavior modification and child management. In M. J. Fine (Ed.), Handbook on parent education. New York: Academic Press, 1980.Google Scholar
  59. Sperlinger, D. Aspects of stability in the repertory grid. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 1976, 49, 341–347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Spinetta, J. J., and Rigler, D. The abusing parent. Psychological Bulletin, 1972, 77, 296–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Thorndyke, P. W. Cognitive structures in comprehension and memory of narrative discourse. Cognitive Psychology, 1977, 9,77–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Tversky, A. Features of similarity. Psychological Review,1977, 84,327–352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Uzgiris, I. C., and Weizman, F. (Eds.), The structuring of experience. New York: Plenum Press, 1977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Wasserman, S. The abused parent of the abused child. Children,1967, 14,175–179.Google Scholar
  65. White, B. L., Kaban, B., Shapiro, B., and Attanucci, J. Competence and experience. In I. C. Uzgiris and F. Weizman (Eds.), The structuring of experience. New York: Plenum Press, 1977.Google Scholar
  66. Whiting, J. M., and Child, I. L. Child training and personity: A cross cultural study. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1953.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • James C. Mancuso
    • 1
  • Kenneth H. Handin
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyState University of New York at AlbanyAlbanyUSA
  2. 2.Saint Catherine’s Center for ChildrenAlbanyUSA

Personalised recommendations