Schizophrenia and Psychosomatic Disorders: A Review

  • F. Engelsmann
  • J. Ananth
  • A. M. Ghadirian
  • R. A. Ramsay
  • A. J. Krakowski


It has been hypothesized that schizophrenia and psychosomatic disorders (PSD) involve different processes, both psychologically and neurophysiologically, that schizophrenia and certain physical illnesses do not coexist. There are psychological and biological indicators that support the hypothesis that schizophrenia and PSD are mutually exclusive.


Rheumatoid Arthritis Bronchial Asthma Schizophrenic Patient Psychiatric Patient Psychosomatic Medicine 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Alexander, F.: 1950. Psychosomatic Medicine ( Norton, New York).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Arbeiter, H.I.: 1967. How prevalent is allergy among United States school children? Clin. Pediatr. 6: 140.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Baldwin, J.A.: 1979. Schizophrenia and physical illness. Editorial. Psychological Med. 9: 611–618.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Broder, I., Barlow, P.P., and Horton, R.J.M.: 1962. The epidemiology of asthma and hay fever in a total community, Techumseh, Michigan. I. Description of study and general findings. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 33: 513.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Broder, I., Barlow, P.P., and Horton, R.J.M.: 1962. The epidemiology of asthma and hay fever in a total community, Techumseh, Michigan. H. The relationship between asthma and hay fever. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 33: 524.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cathcart, E.S., and O’Sullivan, J.B.: 1970. Rheumatoid arthritis in a New England town: A prevalence study in Sudbury, Massacuhsetts. N. Eng. J. Med. 282: 421.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cobb, S. and Lawrence, J.: 1957. Towards a geography of rheumatoid arthritis. Bull. Rheum. Dis. 7: 133.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Dawson, B., Horobin, G., Illsley, R., and Mitchell, R.: 1969. A survey of childhood asthma in Aberdeen. Lancet, 1: 827.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Dungal, N., and Hansen, H.: 1958. Peptic ulcers in Iceland. Schweiz. Z. Allg. Pathol. 21: 225.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Eberhard, G.: 1968. Personality and peptic ulcer: Preliminary report of a twin study. Acta Psychiatr. Scand. 203: 131.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    French, T.M., and Alexander, F.: 1941. Psychogenic factors in bronchial asthma. Psychosomatic Medicine Monograph 4, Washington, D.C.: National Research Council.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Funkenstein, D.H.: 1950. Psychophysiological relationship to asthma and urticaria to mental illness. Psychosom. Med. 12: 377.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Funkenstein, D.H.: 1953. The relationship of experimentally produced asthmatic attacks to certain acute life stresses. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 24: 11.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gibberd, F.B.: 1965. A survey of four hundred and six cases of rheumatoid arthritis. Acta Rheum. Scand. 11: 62.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gosling, R.H.: 1977. Peptic ulcer and mental disorder. J. Psychosom. Res. 2: 285–289.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Gregg, D.: 1959. The paucity of arthritis among psychotic patients. Am. J. Psychi. 95: 853.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Habbick, B.F., Melrose, A.G., and Grant, J.C.: 1968. Duodenal ulcer in childhood: A study of predisposing factors. Arch. Dis. Child. 43: 23.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Higginson, J., and Simson, I.: 1958. Lesions of the gastrointestinal tract in the non-white population of South Africa. Schwiz. Z. Allg. Path. 21: 577.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hussar, A.E.: 1968. Peptic ulcer in long-term institutionalized schizophrenic patients. Psychosom. Med. 30: 374–377.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Jones, F.A.: 1955. Social aspects of peptic ulcer. J.R. Inst. Publ. Hlth. 18: 64.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kellgren, J.H.: 1966. Epidemiology of rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 9: 658.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Klein, G.: 1951. Uber das magen-und duodenalgeschwur am sektionsmaterial. Dtsch. Z. Verday. Stoffwechselkr, 11: 153.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Laine, V.A.I.: 1962. Rheumatic complaints in an urban population in Finland. Acta. Rheum. Scand. 8: 81.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Lawrence, J.S.: 1961. Prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis. Ann. Rheum. Dis. 20: 11.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Lawrence, J.S., Bremmer, J.M., Ba.., J.A., and Burch, T.A.: 1966. Rheumatoid arthritis in a subtropical population. Ann. Rheum. Dis. 25: 59.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Leavitt, H.C.: 1943. Bronchial asthma in functional psychoses. Psychosom. Med. 5: 39.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Leigh, D., and Doust, J.W.L.: 1953. Asthma and psychosis. J. Ment. Sci. 99: 489.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Leight, D., and Marley, E.: 1956. A psychiatric assessment of adult asthmatics, a statistical study. J. Psychosom. Res. 1: 109.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Loumos, S.: 1952. Autonomic nervous system and immunity. A.M.A. Arch. Neurol. Psychiat. 68: 69–77.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Malkiel, S.: 1971. Presidential address. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 48: 1.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Matthysse, S.A., and Lipinski, J.: 1975. Biochemical aspects of schizophrenia. Ann. Rev. Med. 26: 551–565.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    McAllister, R.M., and Hecker, A.O.: 1949. The incidence of allergy in psychotic reactions. Am. J. Psychiatry 105: 843.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Mellsop, G.W. et al: 1974. Absence of rheumatoid arthritis in schizophrenia. Aust. N.Z. J. Med. 4: 247–252.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Mikkelsen, W.M., Dodge, H.J., Dugg, I.F., and Kato, H.: 1967. Estimates of the prevalence of rheumatic diseases in the population of Tecumseh, Michigan, 1959–1960. J. Chronic Dis. 20: 351.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    National Center for Health Statistics. Chronic conditions and limitations of activity and morbidity in the United States. July 1965 - June 1967. Vital and Health Statistics, Publication No. 1000, Series 10, No. 61, (1971).Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Nemiah, J.C.: 1975. Denial revisited: reflections on psychosomatic theory. Psychother. Psychosom. 26: 140–147.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Nissen, H.A., and Spencer, K.A.: 1936. The psychogenic problem (endocrine and metabolic) in chronic arthritis. N. Eng. J. Med. 214: 576.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    O’Brien, W.W.: 1967. The genetics of rheumatoid arthritis. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 2: 785.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Pearson, R.S.B.: 1968. Asthma-allergy and prognosis. Proc. R. Soc. Med. 61: 467.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Pedder, J.R.: 1969. Psychosomatic diseases and psychoses. J. Psychosom. Res. 13: 339–346.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Ramsay, R.A., Ananth, J., Engelsmann, F., Krakowski, A.J., Wittkower, E.D., and Ghadirían, A.M.: Schizophrenia and psychosomatic illness. J. of Psychosom. Res. 26: 33–42, 1982.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Ramsay, R.A., Krakowski, A.J., Rydzynski, Z., Jarosz, M., Englesmann, F., and Ananth, J.: 1981. International comparison of the prevalence of psychosomatic disorders in schizophrenic patients. Presented at the VIth World Congress of the International College of Psychosomatic Medicine, Montreal, Canada, September 13–18, 1981. (In press), (1982b).Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Raper, A.B.: 1958. The incidence of peptic ulceration in some African tribal groups. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 52: 535.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Rennie, T.A.C. and Srole, I.: 1956. Social class prevalence and distribution of psychosomatic conditions in an urban population. Psychosom. Med. 18: 449–456.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Ross, W.D.: 1954. Psychosomatic disorders and psychosis. In: Recent Developments in Psychosomatic Medicine, Ed. E. Wittkower and R.A. Cleghorn. ( Pitman, London ).Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Ross, W.D., Hay, J., and McDowall, M.F.: 1950. The incidence of certain vegetative disturbances in relation to psychosis. Psychosom. Med. 12: 179.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Sabbath, M.C. and Luce, R.A.: 1952. Psychosis and bronchial asthma. Psychiatr. Q. 26: 562.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Shickikawa, K., Mayeda, A., Komatsubara, Y., Yamamoto, T., Akabory, O., Hongo, I., Kosugi, T., Miyauchi, T., Orihara, M., and Akira, T.: 1966. Rheumatic complaints in urban and rural populations in Osaka. Ann. Rheum. Dis. 25: 25.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Smith, M.: 1932. A study of 102 cases of atropic arthritis. I: Introduction; statistical data. N. Eng. J. Med. 206: 103.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Sperling, M.: 1955. Psychosis and psychosomatic medicine. Int. J. Psychoanal. 36: 320–327.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Stevens, J.: 1973. An anatomy of schizophrenia? Arch. Gen. Psychiat. 29: 177–181.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Schwartz, L.A.: 1951. Psychodynamic aspects of peptic ulcer. Samiksa, 5: 169.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Schwartz, J. and Semrad, E.V.: 1951. Psychosomatic disorders in psychoses. Psychosom. Med. 13: 314–321.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Thompson, H.: 1954. An investigation into the post mortem incidence of peptic ulcers and erosions. Glasg. Med. J. 35: 326.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Trevathan, R.D. and Tatum, J.C.: 1954. Rarity of occurrence of psychosis and rheumatoid arthritis in individual patients. J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 120, 85.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    U.S. Department of Health Education and Welfare. 1966. Arthritis. Washington, D.C., April.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Vesely, K.T., Kubickova, K.T., and Dvorakova, M.: 1968. Clinical data and characteristics differentiating types of peptic ulcer. Gut 9: 57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Watkinson, G.: 1958. The autopsy incidence of chronic peptic ulceration, a national and regional survey of 20,000 examinations performed in Leeds, England, between 1930 and 1940, and in 9 towns in England and Scotland in 1956. Schweiz. Z. Allg. Path. 21: 405.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Wolfe, A.M.: 1968. The epidemiology of rheumatoid arthritis: a review. I. Surveys. Bull. Rheum. Dis. 19: 518.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Weiner, H.: 1977. Psychobiology and human disease. Elsevier, New York.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Zeller, M., and Edlin, J.V.: 1943. Allergy in the insane. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 14: 564.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • F. Engelsmann
    • 1
  • J. Ananth
    • 2
  • A. M. Ghadirian
    • 1
  • R. A. Ramsay
    • 1
  • A. J. Krakowski
    • 3
  1. 1.Allan Memorial Institute, Royal Victoria HospitalMcGill UniversityMontrealCanada
  2. 2.Department of PsychiatryUniversity of California Medical CenterLos AngelesUSA
  3. 3.Champlain Valley-Physicians Hospital Medical CenterPlattsburghUSA

Personalised recommendations