Psychosocial Etiology of Coronary Heart Disease

  • Einar Kringlen


A rapid increase in the incidence of coronary heart disease occurred in most industrial countries after World War II. The “epidemic” reached a peak in the end of the 1960’s in the United States, somewhat later in North European countries. During the last decade one has witnessed a decline in several countries, but still coronary heart disease is one of the major health problems in the western world.


Coronary Heart Disease Life Change Hypertensive Heart Disease Lower Social Classis Overtime Work 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Adelstein, A. M. 1978. Current vital statistics: Methods and interpretation. Brit. Med. J. 2, 983–987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alexander, F. 1950. Psychosomatic Medicine. Norton, New York. Antonovsky, A. 1968. Social class and the major cardiovascular diseases. J. chron. Dis. 21, 65–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bengtsson, C. 1974. Ischaemic heart disease in women. Acta Med. Scand. suppl. 549.Google Scholar
  4. Brenner, M. H., 1980. Industrialization and Economic Growth: Estimates of Their Effects on the Health of Populations, in: Assessing the Contributions of the Social Sciences to Health, Westview Press, Boulder.Google Scholar
  5. Bruhn, J. G., Wolf, S., Lynn, T. N. et al. 1968. Social aspects of coronary heart disease in a Pennsylvania German community. Soc. Sci. Med. 2, 201–212.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Caplan, R. D. et al. 1975. Job demands and worker health, NIOSH research report. Washington, D. C.Google Scholar
  7. Carver, C. S., Coleman, A. E. Glass, D. C. 1976. The coronaryprone behavior pattern and the suppression of fatigue on a treadmill test. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 33, 460–466.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cassel, J., Heyden, S., Batel, A. G. et al, 1971. Incidence of coronary heart disease by ethnic group, social class and sex. Arch. Intern Med. 128, 901–906.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cohen, J. B. 1973. Socio-cultural change and behavior patterns in disease etiology. An epidemiologic study of coronary disease among Japanese Americans. UCLA, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  10. Danmarks statistik, 1979, D$delighed og erhvery 1970–75 Statistiske Unders$gelser nr. 37, Kobenhavn.Google Scholar
  11. Dongier, M. 1974. Psychosomatic aspects in myocardial infarction in comparison with angina pectoris. Psychother. Psychosom. 23, 123–131.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dunbar, F. 1943. Psychosomatic diagnosis. Harper, New York Eyer, J. 1977. Prosperity as a cause of death, Intern. J. Hlth. Serv. 7, 125–150.Google Scholar
  13. de Faire, U. Theorell, T. 1976. Life changes and myocardial infarction. Scand. J. Soc. Med., 4, 115–122.Google Scholar
  14. Friedman, M. Rosenman, R. H. 1959. Association of specific overt behavior pattern with blood and cardiovascular findings. JAMA 169, 1286–1296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hinkle, Jr. L. E., Whitney, L. H. Lehman, E. W., 1968. Occupation, education and coronary heart disease. Experiences in the Bell system. Science 161, 238–246.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Holme, J., Helgeland, A. Hjermann, J. et al. 1976. Coronary risk factors and socioeconomic status. The Oslo study. Lancet 2, 1396–1398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Holme, J., Helgeland, A. Hjermann, J. et al. 1977. Koronare risikofaktorer og sosio$konomisk status. T. norske Læ geforen. 97, 1380–1382.Google Scholar
  18. Horan, P. M. Grai, B. H. 1974. Status inconsistency and mobility in heart disease. J. Hlth. Soc. Behay., 15, 300–310.Google Scholar
  19. Jenkins, C. D., Rosenman, R. H. Friedman, M. 1967. Development of an objective psychological test for the determination of the coronary prone behavior pattern in employed men. J. chron. Dis. 2, 371–379.Google Scholar
  20. Jenkins, C. D., Rosenman, R. H. Zyzanski, S. J. 1974. Prediction of clinical coronary heart disease by a test for the coronaryprone behavior pattern. N. Engl. J. Med. 290, 1271–1275.Google Scholar
  21. Kagan, A. 1971. Epidemiology and society, stress and disease. In: Levi, L. (ed.) Society, Stress and Disease. I. Oxford University Press, London.Google Scholar
  22. Kringlen, E. 1981. Stress and coronary heart disease. In: Nance, W. E. (ed.) Twin Research 3. Epidemiological and Clinical Studies, Liss. New York.Google Scholar
  23. Kannel, W. B. 1973. The natural history of myocardial infarction: The Framingham Study. Leyden University Press, Leyden.Google Scholar
  24. Keys, A. 1970. Coronary heart disease in seven countries. Circulation 41, suppl. 1.Google Scholar
  25. Lehman, E. W. 1967. Social class and coronary heart disease: a sociological assessment of the medical literature. J. Chronic. Dis. 20, 381–391.Google Scholar
  26. Liljefors, J. 1970. Coronary heart disease in male twins. Acta Med. Scand. Suppl. 511.Google Scholar
  27. Liljefors, J. Rahe, R. H. 1970. An identical twin study of psychosocial factors in coronary heart disease in Sweden. Psychosomat. Med. 32, 523–542.Google Scholar
  28. Marmot, M. G., Syme, S. L., Kagan, A. et al. 1975. Epidemiologic studies of coronary heart disease and stroke in Japanese men living in Japan, Hawaii and California: Prevalence of coronary and hypertensive heart disease and associated risk factors. Amer. J. Epidemiol. 102, 514–525.Google Scholar
  29. Mattews, K. A., Class, D. C., Rosenman, R. H. et al. 1977. Competitive drive, pattern A and coronary heart disease: A further analysis of some data from the Western Collaborative Group Study. J. Chron Dis. 30, 489–498.Google Scholar
  30. Medalie, J. H., Kahn, H. A., Neufeld, H. N. et al. 1973. Myocardial infarction over a five-year period. I. Prevalence, incidence and mortality experience. J. Chronic Dis. 26, 63–84.Google Scholar
  31. Medalie, J. H., Snyder, M., Groen, J. J. et al. 1973a. Angina pectoris among 10,000 men: 5-year incidence and univariate analysis. Amer. J. Med. 55, 583–594.Google Scholar
  32. Nichaman, M. Z., Hamilton, H. B., Kagan, A. et al. 1975. Epidemiologic studies of coronary heart disease and stroke in Japanese men living in Japan, Hawaii, and California: Distribution of biochemical risk factors. Amer. J. Epidemiol. 102, 491–501.Google Scholar
  33. Ostfeld, A. M., Lebovits, B. Z., Shekelle, R. B. et al. 1964. A prospective study of the relationship between personality and coronary heart disease. J. Chron. Dis. 17, 265–276.Google Scholar
  34. Rahe, R. H. Lind, E. 1971. Psychosocial factors and sudden cardiac death: A pilot-study. J. Psychosomat. Res. 15, 19–24.Google Scholar
  35. Reid, D. D., 1975. International studies in epidemiology of coronary heart disease. Amer. J. Epidemiol. 102, 469–476.Google Scholar
  36. Romo, M., Siltanen, P., Theorell, T. Rahe, C. R., 1974. Work behavior, time urgency and life dissatisfaction in subjects with myocardial infarction. A cross-cultural study. J. Psychosomat. Res. 18, 1–18.Google Scholar
  37. Rosenman, R. H., Friedman, M., Jenkins, C. D. et al. 1966a. The prediction of immunity to coronary heart disease. JAMA 198, 1159–1162Google Scholar
  38. Rosenman, R. H., Brand, R. J., Jenkins, C. D. et al. 1975., Coronary heart disease in the Western collaborative group study. Final follow-up experience of 81/2 years. JAMA 233, 872–877.Google Scholar
  39. Russek, H. I. Russek, L. G. 1976. Is emotional stress an etiologic factor in coronary heart disease. Psychosomatics 17, 63–67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Scherwitz, L., Berton, K. Leventhal, H. 1978. Type A behavior, self-involvement and cardiovascular response. Psychosom. Med. 40, 593–609.Google Scholar
  41. Shekelle, R. B., Ostfeld, A. M. Paul, O. 1969. On social status and incidence of coronary heart disease. J. Chron. Dis. 22, 381–394.Google Scholar
  42. Shekelle, R. B., Schoenberger, J. A. Stamler, J., 1976. Correlates of the JAS type A behavior pattern score. J. Chron. Dis. 1976. 29.Google Scholar
  43. Statistiske analyser, 1976. Statistisk Sentralbyra, Oslo.Google Scholar
  44. Syme, S. L., Hyman, M. M. Enterline, P. E., 1965. Cultural mobility and the occurrence of coronary heart disease. J. Hlth. Soc. Behay. 6, 178–189.Google Scholar
  45. Theorell, T., Lind, E. Floderus, B. 1975. The relationship of disturbing life changes and some other serious illnesses. Int. J. Epidem., 4, 281–295.Google Scholar
  46. Winkelstein, W. Jr., Kagan, A. Kato, H., et al. 1975. Epidemiologic studies of coronary heart disease and stroke in Japanese men living in Japan, Hawaii and California: Blood pressure distributions. Amer. J. Epidem. 102, 514–525.Google Scholar
  47. Worth, R. M., Kato, H., Rhoads, G. G. et al. 1975. Epidemiologic studies of coronary heart disease and stroke in Japanese men living in Japan, Hawaii and California: Mortality. Amer. J. Epidem. 102, 481–490.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • Einar Kringlen
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Behavioural Sciences in MedicineUniversity of OsloOslo 3Norway

Personalised recommendations