Laser Doppler Microscopy: Especially as a Method for Studying Brownian Motion and Flow in the Sieve Tubes of Plants

  • Richard P. C. Johnson
Part of the NATO Advanced Science Institutes Series book series (NSSA, volume 59)


Laser Doppler velocimetry and photon correlation spectroscopy are well established as methods for measuring the flow and diffusion of particles in fluids. The diameters of the laser beams used are usually too wide to be placed precisely within plant or animal cells, capillaries, or other specimens of interest to biologists. Several groups of workers have described laser Doppler microscopes, either with crossed beams or with single beams. These instruments allow scattered laser light to be detected from volumes with diameters of 10 pm or less and enable the scattering volume to be seen and placed accurately in specimens viewed at high magnification. Some designs and principles of laser Doppler microscopes are discussed, especially of a single beam instrument and its application to the study of Brownian motion and flow in sieve tubes, the food transport channels in higher plants.


Brownian Motion Autocorrelation Function Objective Lens Interference Fringe Laser Doppler Velocimetry 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    I. Maeda and S. Fujime, Quasielastic Light Scattering under Optical Microscope, Rev. scient. Instrum., 43: 566–567 (1972).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    G.V.R. Born, A. Melling and J.H. Whitelaw, Laser Doppler microscope for blood velocity measurements, Biorheology, 15: 163–172 (1978).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    T. Cochrane and J.C. Earnshaw, Practical laser Doppler microscopes, J. Phys. E: Sci. Instrum., 11: 196–198 (1978).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    P.R. DiGiovanni, B. Manoushagian, S. Einav and H.J. Berman, An improved laser Doppler microscope for measurement of in vivo velocity distributions in the microcirculation, Proc. 6th New England Bioengineering Conf., Pergamon Press, New York, 113–116 (1978).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    M. Horimoto and T. Koyama, Measurements of Blood Flow Velocity in Pulmonary Microvessels with laser Doppler Microscope and Investigation of several Factors Affecting Blood Flow Velocity, Biorheology, 18: 77–78 (1981).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    M. Horimoto, T. Koyama, Y. Kikuchi, Y. Kakiuchi and M. Murao, Effect of Transpulmonary Pressure on Blood-flow Velocity in Pulmonary Microvessels, Respiration Physiology, 43: 31–41 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    T. Koyama, M. Horimoto, H. Mishina, T. Asakura, M. Horimoto and M. Murao, Laser Doppler Microscope in an oblique-backward mode and pulsatile blood flow velocity in pulmonary arteriole, Experentia, 35: 65–67 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 7.
    T. Koyama, M. Horimoto, H. Mishina, T. Asakura, M. Horimoto and M. Murao, Laser Doppler microscope in an oblique-backward mode and pulsatile blood flow velocity in pulmonary arteriole, Experentia, 35: 65–67 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 8.
    H. Mishina, T. Ushizaka and T. Asakura, A Laser Doppler Microscope: Its optical and signal analysing systems and some experimental results of flow velocity, Optics and laser Technology, 121–127 (June 1976).Google Scholar
  10. 9.
    S. Rahat, D.C. Howard, S. Einav and H.J. Berman, Reflectance, fringe mode laser Doppler microscope developed and used to determine velocity profiles of red cells in microvessels, Fed. Proc., 37: 214 (1978).Google Scholar
  11. 10.
    B.S. Rinkevichyus, A.V. Tolkachev, V.N. Sutoshin and V.L. Chudov, Laser Doppler Microscope, Radio Eng. and Electron Phys. (USA), 24: 114–116 (1979).Google Scholar
  12. 11.
    J.C. Earnshaw and M.W. Steer, Laser Doppler Microscopy, Proc. R. micr. Soc., 14: 108–110 (1979).Google Scholar
  13. 12.
    T.J. Herbert and J.D. Acton, “Photon correlation spectroscopy of light scattered from microscopic regions”, Applied Optics, 18: 588–590 (1979).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 13.
    R.P.C. Johnson, A laser Doppler microscope for biological studies, in:Proc. Conference on Biomedical applications of laser light scattering, Cambridge, England, Sept. 8–10, 1981, B.R. Ware, W.L. Lee and D.B. Sattelle eds., Elsevier North Holland (1982).Google Scholar
  15. 14.
    R.P.C. Johnson and D.A. Ross, Laser Doppler Microscopy and Fibre Optic Doppler Anemometry, in: The Analysis of Organic Surfaces, P. Echlin, ed., Wiley, New York, In Press.Google Scholar
  16. 15.
    A. Koniuta, M.T. Dudermel and P.M. Adler, A laser Doppler anemometer with microscopic intersection volume, J. Phys. E: Sci. Instrum., 12: 918–920 (1979).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 16.
    H.S. Dhadwal and D.A. Ross, Size and Concentration of Particles in Syton using the Fibre Optic Doppler Anemometer, FODA, J. Colloid and Interface Science, 76: 478–489 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 17.
    J.C. Earnshaw and M.W. Steer, Studies of cellular Dynamics by laser Doppler microscopy, Pestic. Sci., 10: 358–368 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 18.
    S. Aronoff, J. Dainty, P.R. Gorham, L.M. Srivastava and C.A. Swanson, eds., Phloem Transport, NATO Advanced Study Institute Series A, Volume 4, Plenum Press, New York and London (1975).Google Scholar
  20. 19.
    P.E. Weatherley and R.P.C. Johnson, The form and function of the sieve tube: A problem in reconciliation, Int. Rev. Cytol., 24: 149–192 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 20.
    R.P.C. Johnson, Can cell walls bending round xylem vessels control water flow? Planta, 136: 187–194 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 21.
    R.P.C. Johnson, The Microscopy of P-protein Filaments in Freeze-etched Sieve Pores; Brownian Motion Limits Resolution of their Positions, Planta, 143: 191–205 (1978).Google Scholar
  23. 22.
    P.E. Weatherley, Translocation in sieve tubes. Some thoughts on structure and mechanism, Physiol. Veg., 10: 731–742 (1972).Google Scholar
  24. 23.
    D.M. Lawton and R.P.C. Johnson, A superhelical model for the ultrastructure of ‘P-protein tubules’ in sieve elements of Nymphoides peZtata, Cytobiology, 14: 1–17 (1976).Google Scholar
  25. 24.
    R.P.C. Johnson, A. Freundlich and G.F. Barclay, Transcellular strands in sieve tubes; what are they? J. exp. Bot., 27: 1117–1136 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 25.
    D.D. Sabnis and J.W. Hart, Heterogeneity in Phloem Protein Complements from Different Species, Planta, 145: 459–466 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 26.
    E.A.C. MacRobbie, Phloem Translocation. Facts and Mechanisms: A Comparative Survey, Biol. Rev., 46: 429–481 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 27.
    D.D. Sabnis and J.W. Hart, Studies on the possible occurrence of Actomyosin-like proteins in phloem, Planta, 118: 271–281 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 28.
    B.A. Palevitz and P.K. Hepler, Is P-protein actin-like?–Not yet, Planta, 125: 261–271 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 29.
    D.R. Lee, D.C. Arnold and D.S. Fensom, Some microscopical observations of Heracleum using Nomarski optics, J. exp. Bot., 22: 25–38 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 30.
    G.F. Barclay, K.J. Oparka and R.P.C. Johnson, Induced disruption of sieve element plastids in HeracZeum mantegazzianum L. J. exp. Bot., 28: 709–717 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 31.
    G.F. Barclay and R.P.C. Johnson, Analysis of Particle motion in sieve tubes of Heracleum, Plant, Cell and Environment, 5: 173–178 (1982).Google Scholar
  33. 32.
    P. Le-Cong and R.H. Lovberg, Signal-to-noise improvement in laser Doppler velocimetry, Applied Optics, 19: 4222–4225 (1980).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 33.
    L.E. Drain, The Laser Doppler Technique, Wiley, Chichester (1980).Google Scholar
  35. 34.
    J.B. Abbiss, T.W. Chubb and E.R. Pike, Laser Doppler Anemometry, Optics and Laser Technology, 249–261 (December 1974).Google Scholar
  36. 35.
    H. Mishina, Y. Kawase, T. Asakura, Frequency Error of Doppler Beat Signals due to Extended Scattering Particles, Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, 15: 633–640 (1976).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 36.
    Y. Kawase, H. Mishina and T. Asakura, Frequency Error of Doppler Beat Signals due to Extended Scattering Particles: II. Some Additional Considerations and Experimental Verification, Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, 15: 2173–2179 (1976).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 37.
    H. Mishina and T. Asakura, Measurement of Velocity Fluctuations in laser Doppler Microscope by the New System Employing the Time-to-Pulse Height Converter, Appl. Phys., 5: 351–359 (1975).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 38.
    M. Baker and H. Wayland, On line volume flow rate and velocity measurement for blood in microvessels, Microvascular Research 7: 131–143 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 39.
    J.C. Earnshaw, Cytoplasmic motion in Elodea, in: H.Z. Cummins and E.R. Pike, eds., Photon Correlation Spectroscopy and Velocimetry, NATO Advanced Study Institute Series B; Volume 23, Plenum Press, New York and London (1977).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • Richard P. C. Johnson
    • 1
  1. 1.The Botany DepartmentUniversity of AberdeenOld AberdeenScotland

Personalised recommendations