Immunological Surveillance: T Cell Repertoire and the Biological Function of MHC Antigens

  • Peter C. Doherty
Part of the Nobel Foundation Symposia Published by Plenum book series (NOFS, volume 55)


Ten years ago we had no clear idea of the biological role of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), though many people were trying to deal with the issue intellectually.1–4 The phenomenon of alloreactivity dominated both experiments and concepts. Considerable effort had been put into the study of graft rejection and the strong transplantation antigens. Could it be that these extremely potent immune responses, and the glycoproteins at which they were directed, had no physiological function other than the elimination of transplanted tissues? Was alloreactivity a phylogenetic remnant of the need to avoid mutual parasitism in primitive life forms, now used in complex vertebrates to limit the emergence of spontaneous tumors? Such thinking led to Burnet’s formulation of the immunological surveillance concept.5


Major Histocompatibility Complex Cell Repertoire Immune Response Gene Major Histocompatibility Complex Antigen Major Histocompatibility Complex Polymorphism 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Snell, G.D. The H-2 locus of the mouse: Observations and speculations concerning its comparative genetics and its polymorphism. Folia.Biologica (Praha) 14: 335 (1968).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Amos, D.B., W.F. Bodmer, R. Ceppellini, P.G. Condliffe, J. Daus-set, J.L. Fahey, H.C. Goodman, G. Klein, J. Klein, F. Lilly, D.L. Mann, H. McDevitt, S. Nathenson, J. Palm., R.A. Reisfeld, N.G. Rogentime, A.R. Sanderson, D.C. Shreffler, M. Simonsen, and J. J. Van Rood. Biological significance of histocompatibility antigens. Fed. Proc. 31: 1087 (1971).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bodmer, W.F. Evolutionary significance of the HLA System. Nature (Lond.) 237: 139 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Burnet, F.M. Multiple polymorphism in relation to histocompati- bility antigens. Nature (Loud.) 245: 359 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Burnet, F.M. “Immunological Surveillance”, Pergamon Press, Sydney (1970).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    McDevitt, H.O. and B. Benacerraf. Genetic control of specific immune responses. Advan. Immunol. 11: 31 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    McDevitt, H.O., B.D. Deak, D.C. Shreffler, J. Klein, J.H. Stimp- fling, and G.D. Snell. Genetic control of the immune response. Mapping of the Ir-1 locus. J. Exp. Med. 135: 1259 (1972).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Benacerraf, B. and H.O. McDevitt. Histocompatibility-linked immune response genes. Science 175: 273 (1972).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Benacerraf, B. “Genetic Control of Immune Responsiveness: Rela- tionship to Disease Susceptibility.” H.O. McDevitt and M. Landy, eds., Academic Press, New York, pp. 716–718 (1972).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Shevach, E.M. and A.S. Rosenthal. Function of macrophages in antigen recognition by guinea pig T lymphocytes. II. Role of the macrophage in the regulation of genetic control of the immune response. J. Exp. Med. 138: 1213 (1973).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Benacerraf, B. and D.H. Katz. The histocompatibility-linked immune response genes. Advances in Cancer Research 21: 121 (1975).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Greineder, D.K., E.M. Shevach and A.S. Rosenthal. Macrophage-lymphocyte interaction. III. Site of alloantiserum inhibition of T lymphocyte proliferation induced by allogeneic or aldehyde-bearing cells. J. Immunol. 117: 1261 (1976).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Benacerraf,B. A hypothesis to relate the specificity of T lymphocytes and the activity of I-region-specific Ir genes in macrophages and B lymphocytes. J. Immunol. 120: 1809 (1978).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Zinkernagel, R.M. and P.C. Doherty. Immunological surveillance against altered self components by sensitized T lymphocytes in lymphocytic choriomeningitis. Nature (Lond.) 251: 547 (1974).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Shearer, G.M. Cell-mediated cytotoxicity to trinitrophenylmodified syngeneic lymphocytes. Eur. J. Immunol. 4: 527 (1974)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Doherty, P.C. and R.M. Zinkernagel. H-2 compatibility is required for maximal T cell-mediated lysis of target cells infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. J. Exp. Med. 141: 502 (1975).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Zinkernagel, R.M. and P.C. Doherty. H-2 compatibility requirement for T cell-mediated lysis of target cells infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. Different cytotoxic T cell specificities are associated with structures coded for in H-2K or H-2D. J. Exp. Med. 141: 1427 (1975).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Doherty, P.C. and R.M. Zinkernagel. A biological role for the major histocompatibility antigens. Lancet 12 1406 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Shearer, G.M. and A. Schmitt-Verhulst. Major histocompatibility complex restricted cell mediated immunity. Adv. Immunol. 25: 55 (1977).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Zinkernagel, R.M. and P.C. Doherty. MHC-restricted cytotoxic T cells: Studies on the biological role of polymorphic major transplantation antigens determining T cell restriction-specificity function and responsiveness. Adv. Immunol. 27: 51 (1979).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Roder, J.C. and T. Haliotis. Do NK cells play a role in antitumor surveillance? Immunology Today 1: 96 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Herberman, R.B. and J.R. Ortaldo. Natural killer cells: Their role in defense against disease. Science 214: 24 (1981).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Janeway, C.A., Jr., R.E. Cone and R.W. Rosenstein. T cell receptors: through a glass darklv. Immunology Today 3: 83 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Cerottini, J.C. and K.T. Brunner. Cell-mediated cytotoxicity, allograft rejection and tumor immunity. Adv. Immunol. 18: 67 (1974).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Brunner, K.T., H.R. MacDonald, and J.C. Cerottini. Quantitation and clonal isolation of cytolytic T lymphocyte precursors selectively infiltrating murine sarcoma virus-induced tumors. J. Exp. Med. 154: 362 (1981).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Hurwitz, J.L., R. Korngold, and P.C. Doherty. Specific and nonspecific T cell recruitment in viral meningitis: Implications for multiple sclerosis. Submitted for publication.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Sprent, J. Role of H-2 gene products in the function of helper cells from normal and chimeric mice measured in vivo. Immunol. Rev. 42: 108 (1978).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Farrar, J.J., W.R. Benjamin, M.L. Hilfiker, M. Howard, W.L. Farrar and J. Fuller-Farrar. The biochemistry, biology and role of interleukin 2 in the induction of cytotoxic T cell and antibody-forming B cell responses. Immunol. Rev. 63: 129 (1982).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ada, G.L., K.N. Leung, and H. Ertl. An analysis of effector T cell generation and function in mice exposed to influenza A or Sendai viruses. Immunol. Rev. 58: 5 (1981).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Lu, Y.L. and B.A. Askonas. Biological properties of an influenza A virus-specific T cell clone. Inhibition of virus replication in vivo and induction of delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions. J. Exp. Med. 154: 225 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Reiss, C.S. and S.J. Burakoff. Specificity of the helper T cell for the cytolytic T lymphocyte response to influenza A viruses. J. Exp. Med. 154: 541 (1981).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Matis, L.A., P.P. Jones, D.B. Murphy, S.M. Hedrick, E.A. Lerner, C.A. Janeway, Jr., J.M. McNicholas, and R.H. Schwartz. Immune response gene function correlates with the expression of an Ia antigen. II. A quantitative deficiency in Ae:Ea complex expression causes a corresponding defect in antigen-presenting cell function. J. Exp. Med. 155: 508 (1982).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Alpert, B. and J. Sprent. Role of the H-2 complex in induction of T helper cells in vivo. III. Contribution of I-E subregion to restriction sites recognized by I-A/E restricted T cells. J. Exp. Med. 155: 548 (1982).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Langman, R.E. The role of the major H complex in immunity: a new concept in the functioning of a cell-mediated immune system. Rev. Physiol. Biochem. Pharmacol. 81: 1 (1978).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Schwartz, R.H. A clonal deletion model for Ir gene control of the immune response. Scand. J. Immunol. 7: 3 (1978).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Doherty, P.C. and J.R. Bennink. An examination of MHC restriction in the context of a minimal clonal abortion model for self tolerance. Scand. J. Immunol. 12: 271 (1980).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Forman, J., J. Trial, S. Tonkonogy, and L. Flaherty. The Qa 2 subregion controls the expression of two antigens recognized by H-2-unrestricted cytotoxic T cells. J. Exp. Med. 155: 749 (1982).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Jones, P.P., D.B. Murphy and H.O. McDevitt. Two gene control of the expression of a murine Ia antigen. J. Exp. Med. 148: 295 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Doherty, P.C. Surveillance of self: Cell-mediated immunity to virally modified cell surface is defined operationally by the major histocompatibility complex. Proceedings of the Fourth International Congress of Immunology, Paris, Academic Press, New York, p. 563 (1980).Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Zinkernagel, R.M. and K.L. Rosenthal. Experiments and speculations on antiviral specificity of T and B cells. Immunol. Rev. 58: 131 (1981).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Allouche, M., J.A. Owen and P.C. Doherty. Limiting-dilution analysis of weak influenza-immune T cell responses associated with H-2Kb and H-2Db. J. Immunol., in press.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Mullbacher, A and R.V. Blanden. Murine cytotoxic T cell response to alphavirus is associated mainly with H-2Dk. Immunogenetics 7: 551 (1978).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Burakoff, S.J., R. Finberg, L. Glimcher, F. Lemonnier, B. Benacerraf, and H. Cantor. The biologic significance of alloreactivity. The ontogeny of T cell sets specific for alloantigens or modified self antigens. J. Exp. Med. 148: 1414 (1978).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Bevan, M.J. Killer cells reactive to altered self antigens can also be alloreactive. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 74: 2094 (1977).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    von Boehmer, H., H. Hengartner, M. Nabholz, W. Lenhardt, M. Schreier, and W. Haas. Fine specificity of a continuously growing killer cell clone specific for H-Y antigen. Eur. J. Immunol. 9: 592 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Braciale, T.J., M.E. Andrew and V.L. Braciale. Simultaneous expression of H-2 restricted and alloreactive recognition by a cloned line of influenza virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes. J. Exp. Med. 153: 1371 (1981).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Hildemann, W.H. and D.S. Linthicum. Transplantation immunity in the Palaun sponge, Xestospongia exigua. Transplantation 32: 77 (1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Jerne, N.K. The somatic generation of immune recognition. Eur. J. Immunol. 1: 1 (1971).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Wylie, D.E., L.A. Sherman and N. Klinman. Participation of the major histocompatibility complex in antibody recognition of viral antigens expressed on infected cells. J. Exp. Med. 155: 403 (1982).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Doherty, P.C., R.B. Effros and J.R. Bennink. Heterogeneity of the cytotoxic T cell response following immunization with influenza viruses. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 74: 1209 (1977).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Maizels, R.M., J.A. Clarke, M.A. Harvey, A. Miller, and E.E. Sercarz. Epitope specificity of T cell proliferative response to lysozyme. T proliferative cells react predominately to different determinants from those recognized by B cells. Eur. J. Immunol. 10: 509 (1980).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Fischer Lindahl, K. and H. Lemke. Inhibition of killer target cell interactions by monoclonal anti-H-2 antibodies. Eur. J. Immunol. 9: 526 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Blanden, R.V., A. Mullbacher, and R.B. Ashman. Different D-end dependent antigenic determinants are recognized by H-2 restricted cytotoxic T cells specific for influenza and Bebaru viruses. J. Exp. Med. 150: 166 (1979).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Allouche, M., J.R. Bennink, T.J. McKearn, and P.C. Doherty. A monoclonal antibody to an interspecies major histocompatibility determinant inhibits a virus-specific T cell clone. Cell. Immunol. 68: 1 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Ciavarra, R. and J. Forman. Cell-membrane antigens recognized by anti-viral and anti-trinitrophenyl cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Immunol. Rev. 58: 73 (1981).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Wagner, H., C. Hardt, K. Heeg, K. Pfizenmaier, W. Solbach, R. Bartlett, H. Stockinger, and M. Rollinghoff. T-T cell interactions during cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses. T cell derived helper factor (Interleukin 2) as a probe to analyze CTL responsiveness and thymic maturation of CTL progenitors. Immunol. Rev. 51: 215 (1980).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Doherty, P.C. and R. Korngold. Characteristics of viral meningoencephalitis: Distribution of natural killer cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes in a pox-virus-induced inflammatory exudate. Submitted for publication.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Prehn, R.T. Do tumors grow because of the immune response of the host? Transplantation Rev. 28: 34 (1976).Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Webster, R.G. and W.J. Bean, Jr. Genetics of influenza virus. Ann. Rev. Genet. 12: 415 (1978).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Askonas, B.A., A. Mullbacher and R.B. Ashman. Cytotoxic T memory cells in virus infection and the specificity of helper T cells. Immunol. 45: 79 (1982).Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Owen, J.A., M. Allouche and P.C. Doherty. Limiting dilution analysis of the specificity of influenza immune cytotoxic T cells. Cell. Immunol. 67: 49 (1982).Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Yewdell, J.W., E. Frank and W. Gerhard. Expression of influenza A virus internal antigens on the surface of infected P815 cells. J. Immunol. 126: 1814 (1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Koszinowski, U.H., H. Allen, W.J. Gething, M.D. Waterfield, and H.D. Klenk. Recognition of viral glycoproteins by influenza A specific crossreactive cytolytic T lymphocytes. J. Exp. Med. 151: 945 (1980).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Braciale, T.J., M.E. Andrew and V.L. Braciale. Heterogeneity and specificity of cloned lines of influenza-virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes. J. Exp. Med. 153: 910 (1981).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Palese, P. The genes of influenza virus. Cell. 10: 1 (1977).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Bennink, J.R., J.W. Yewdell and W. Gerhard. A viral polymerase involved in recognition of influenza virus-infected cells by a cytotoxic T cell clone. Nature (Lond.) 296: (1982).Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Doherty, P.C. W.E. Biddison, J.R. Bennink, and B.B. Knowles. Cytotoxíc T cell responses in mice infected with influenza and vaccinía viruses vary in magnitude with H-2 genotype. J. Exp. Med. 148: 534 (1978).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Zinkernagel, R.M., A. Althage, S. Cooper, G. Kreeb, P.A. Klein, B. Sefton, L. Flaherty, J. Stimpfling, D. Shreffler, and J. Klein. Ir genes in H-2 regulate generation of antiviral cytotoxic T cells. Mapping to K or D and dominance of unresponsiveness. J. Exp. Med. 148: 592 (1978).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Bennink, J.R. and P.C. Doherty. Reciprocal stimulation of negatively selected high responder and low responder T cells in virus-infected recipients. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 76: 3482 (1979).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Bevan, M.J. and P.J. Fink. The influence of thymus H-2 antigens on the specificity of maturing killer and helper cells. Immunol. Rev. 42: 4 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Zinkernagel, R.M. Thymus and lymphohemopoietic cells: Their role in T cell maturation, in selection of T cells’ H-2 restriction specificity, and in H-2 linked Ir gene control. Immunol. Rev. 42: 202 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Doherty, P.C., R. Korngold, D.H. Schwartz, and J.R. Bennink. The development and loss of virus-specific thymic competence in bone marrow radiation chimeras and normal mice. Immunol. Rev. 58: 38 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Doherty, P.C. and J.R. Bennink. Vaccinia-specific cytotoxic T cell responses in the context of H-2 antigens not encountered in thymus may reflect aberrant recognition of a virus H-2 complex. J. Exp. Med. 149: 150 (1979).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Hunig, T.R. and M.J. Bevan. Antigen recognition by cloned cytotoxic T lymphocytes follows rules predicted by the altered-self hypothesis. J. Exp. Med. 155: 111 (1982).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Nairn, R., K. Yamaga and S.G. Nathenson. Biochemistry of the gene productivity from murine MHC mutants. Ann. Rev. Genet. 14: 241 (1980).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Melvold, R.W. and H.I. Kohn. Eight new histocompatibility mutants associated with the H-2 complex. Immunogenet. 3: 185 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Klein, J. H-2 mutations: Their genetics and effects on immune functions. Adv. Immunol. 26: 55 (1978).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Sherman, L.A. Dissection of the Bl0.D2 anti H-2Kb cytolytic T lymphocyte receptor repertoire. J. Exp. Med. 151: 1386 (1980).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Zinkernagel, R.M. H-2 compatibility requirement for virus-specific T cell-mediated cytolysis. The H-2K structure involved is coded by a single cistron defined by H-2Kb mutant mice. J. Exp. Med. 143: 437 (1976).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Blanden, R.V., M.B.C. Dunlop, P.C. Doherty, H.I. Kohn, and I.F.C. McKenzie. Effects of four H-2K mutations on virusinduced antigens recognized by cytotoxic T cells. Immunogenet. 3: 541 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Doherty, P.C., J.R. Bennink, and P.J. Wettstein. Negatively-selected H-2bm1 and H-2b T cells stimulated with vaccinia virus completely discriminate between mutant and wild-type H-2K alleles. J. Immunol. 126: 131 (1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Hurwitz, J.L., S. Pan, P.J. Wettstein, and P.C. Doherty. Cross-reactivity patterns for vaccinia-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes from H-2Kbm1 and H-2Kbm3 mutant mice. Submitted for publication.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Melief, C.J.M., L.P. DeWaal, M.Y. Van Der Meulen, R.W. Melvold, and H.I. Kohn. Fine specificity of alloimmune cytotoxic T lymphocytes directed against H-2K. A study with Kb mutants. J. Exp. Med. 151: 993 (1980).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Barcinski, M.A. and A.S. Rosenthal. Immune response gene control of determinant selection. I. Intramolecular mapping of the immunogenic sites on insulin recognized by guinea pig T and B cells. J. Exp. Med. 145: 726 (1977).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Corradin, G and J.M. Chiller. Lymphocyte specificity to protein antigens. II. Fine specificity of T cell activation with cytochrome C and derived peptides as antigenic probes. J. Exp. Med. 149: 439 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Solinger, A.M., M.E. Ultee, E. Margoliash, and R.H. Schwartz. The T lymphocyte response to cytochome C. I. Demonstration of a T cell heteroclitic proliferative response and identification of a topographic antigenic determinant on pigeon cytochrome C whose immune recognition requires two complementing major histocompatibility complex linked immune response genes. J. Exp. Med. 150: 830 (1979).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Berkower, I., F.R.N. Gurd and J.A. Berzofsky. H-2 linked fine specificity of myoglobin primed T cells. Fed. Proc. 40: 998 (1981).Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Kurosawa, Y., H. von Boehmer, W. Haas, H. Sakono, A. Trauneker, and S. Tonegawa. Identification of D segments of immunoglobulin heavy chain genes and their rearrangement in T lymphocytes. Nature (Lond.) 290: 565 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Doherty, P.C., D. Gotze, G. Trinchieri, and R.M. Zinkernagel. Models for recognition of virally-modified cells by immune thymus-derived lymphocytes. Immunogenet. 3: 517 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Cohen, R.J. and H.N. Eisen. Interactions of macromolecules on cell membranes and restrictions of T cell specificity by pro ducts of the major histocompatibility complex. Cell. Immunol. 32: 1 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Kappler, J.W., B. Skidmore, J. White and P. Marrack: Antigen inducible, H-2 restricted, interleukin-2-producing T cell hybridomas. Lack of independent antigen and H-2 recognition. J. Exp. Med. 153: 1198 (1981).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Lonai, P., S. Bitton, H.F.J. Savelkoul, J. Puri, and G.J. Hammerling. Two separate genes regulate self-Ia and carrier recognition in H-2 restricted helper factors secreted by hybridoma cells. J. Exp. Med. 154: 1910 (1981).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Doherty, P.C., R.B. Effros, J.R. Bennink, and W. Gerhard. Cell-mediated immunity in influenza. Perspectives in Virology 10: 73 (1977).Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Infante, A.J., P.D. Infante, S. Gillis, and C.G. Fathman. Definition of T cell idiotypes using anti-idiotype sera produced by immunization with T cell clones. J. Exp. Med. 155: 1100 (1982).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Binz, H. and H. Wigzell. T cell receptors with allo-major histocompatibility complex specificity from rat and mouse. Similarity of size, plasmin susceptibility and localization of antigen-binding region. J. Exp. Med. 154: 1261 (1981).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Germain, R.N. and B. Benacerraf. Helper and suppressor T cell factors. Springer Sem. Immunopath. 3: 93 (1980).Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Yamaguchi, K., N. Chao, D.B. Murphy, and R.K. Gershon. Molecular composition of an antigen specific Ly-1 T suppressor inducerfactor. One molecule binds antigen and is I-J+:another is I-J, does not bind antigen and imparts an Igh-variable region-linked restriction. J. Exp. Med. 155: 655 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Pan, S.H., P.J. Wettstein and B.B. Knowles. H-2Kb mutations limit the CTL response to SV40 TASA. J. Immunol. 128: 243 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter C. Doherty
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Experimental PathologyThe John Curtin School of Medical ResearchCanberraAustralia

Personalised recommendations