Genetic Origins of Insecticide Resistance

  • Frederick W. PlappJr.
  • T. C. Wang


Resistance to insecticides has been demonstrated in most important pest insect species, and this widespread occurrence is thought to provide proof of Darwinian evolutionary theory. That is, exposure to insecticides has acted as a powerful selecting force, which concentrates the various preexisting genetic factors that confer resistance.


Insecticide Resistance Susceptible Strain Genetic Origin MUsca Domestica Metabolic Resistance 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Alt, F. W., Kellems, R. E., Bertino, J. R., and Schimke, R. T., 1978, Selective multiplication of dihydrofolate reductase genes inmethotrexate-resistant variants of cultured murine cell, J. Biol. Chem., 253:1357.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Blackmun, R. L., Takada, H., and Kawakami, K., 1978, Chromosomal rearrangement involved in insecticide resistance of Myzus persicae, Nature, 271:450.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Cohen, J. D., and Eaton, N. R., 1979, Genetic analysis of multiple drug cross resistance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A nuclear-mitochondrial gene interaction, Genetics, 91:19.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Crick, F., 1979, Split genes and RNA splicing, Science, 204:264.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Crow, J. F., 1954, Analysis of a DDT-resistant strain of Drosophila, J. Econ. Entornol., 47:383.Google Scholar
  6. Davis, J. E., and Rownd, R., 1972, Transmissible multiple drug resistance in Enterobacteriaceae, Science, 176:758.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Devonshire, A. L., and Sawicki, R. M., 1979, Insecticide resistant Myzus persicae as an example of evolution by gene duplication, Nature, 280:140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Franco, M. G., and Oppenoorth, F. J., 1962, Genetic experiments on the gene for low aliesterase and organophosphate resistance in Musca domestica L., Entornol. Exp. Appl., 5:119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hiroyoshi, T., 1977, Some new mutants and revised linkage maps of the housefly, Musca domestica L., Japan J. Genetics, 52:275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hoyer, R. F., and Plapp, F. W., 1970, Insecticide resistance in the house fly: Identification of a gene that confers resistance to organotin insecticides and acts as an intensifier of parathion resistance, J. Econ. Entornol., 63:787.Google Scholar
  11. Khan, M. A. Q., Morimoto, R. I., Bederka, J. T., and Runnels, J. M., 1973, Control of the microsomal mixed-function oxidase by Ox 2 and Ox 5 genes in houseflies, Biochem. Genet., 10:243.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kikkawa, H., 1964a, Genetical analysis on the resistance to parathion in Drosophila melanogaster. II. Induction of a resistance gene from its susceptible allele, Botyu-Kagaku, 29:37.Google Scholar
  13. Kikkawa, H., 1964b, Genetical studies on the resistance to Sevin in Drosophila melanogaster, Botyu-Kagaku, 29:42.Google Scholar
  14. King, J. C., 1954, The genetics of resistance to DDT in Drosophila melanogaster, J. Econ. Entomol., 47:389.Google Scholar
  15. Korochkin, L. I., Matveeva, N. M., Kuzin, B. A., Karasik, G. I., and Maximovsky, L. F., 1978, Genetics of esterases in Drosophila. VI. Gene system regulating the phenotypic expression of the organ-specific esterase in Drosophila virilis, Biochem. Genet., 16:709.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lichtwardt, E. T., 1964, A mutant linked to the DDT-resistance of an Illinois strain of house flies, Entomol. Exp. Appl., 7:296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. McDonald, J. R., and Ayala, F. J., 1978, Genetic and biochemical basis of enzyme activity variation in natural populations. I. Alcohol dehydrogenase in Drosophila melanogaster, Genetics, 89:371.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Mitsuhashi, S., 1972, “Transferable drug resistance factor R.” University Park Press, Baltimore.Google Scholar
  19. Motoyama, N., Dauterman, W. C., and Plapp, F. W., 1977, Genetic studies on glutathione-dependent reactions in resistant strains of the house fly, Musca domestica L., Pestic. Biochem. Physiol., 7:443.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Nebert, D. W., 1978, Genetic aspects of enzyme induction by drugs and chemical carcinogens, in: “The Induction of Drug Metabolism,” R. N. Eastabrook and E. Lindenlaub, eds., pp. 419–452, Schattauer Verlag, Stuttgart.Google Scholar
  21. Nebert, D. W., and Jensen, N. M., 1979, The Ah locus: Genetic regulation of the metabolism of carcinogens, drugs, and other environmental chemicals by cytochrome P-450-mediated monooxy-genases, CRC Critical Reviews in Biochemistry, 6:401.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ogaki, M., and Tsukamoto, M., 1953, Genetical analysis of DDT-resistance in some Japanese strains of Drosophila, Botyu-Kagaku, 18:100.Google Scholar
  23. Oppenoorth, F. J., 1965, Biochemical genetics of insecticide resistance, Ann. Rev. Entomol., 10:185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Oppenoorth, F. J., 1967, Two types of sesamex-suppressible resistance in the housefly, Entomol. Exp. Appl., 10:75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Oppenoorth, F. J., 1979, Localization of the acetylcholinesterase gene in the housefly, Musca domestica, Entomol. Exp. Appl., 25:115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Oppenoorth, F. J., Smissaert, H. J., Welling, W., van der Pas, L. J. T., and Hitman, K. T., 1977, Insensitive acetylcholinesterase, high glutathione-S-transferase, and hydrolytic activity as resistance factors in a tetrachlorvinphos-resistant strain of houseflies, Vestic. Biochem. Physiol., 7:34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Oppenoorth, F. J., van der Pas, L. J. T., and Houx, N. W. H., 1979, Glutathione-S-transferase, and hydrolytic activity as resistance factors in a tetrachlorvinphos-resistant strain of house-flies, Pestic. Biochem. Physiol., 7:34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Oshima, C., 1954, Genetical studies on DDT-resistance in populations of Drosophila melanogaster, Botyu-Kagaku, 19:93.Google Scholar
  29. Paigen, K., 1979, Acid hydrolases as models of genetic control, Ann. Rev. Genetics, 13:417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Plapp, F. W., 1976, Biochemical genetics of insecticide resistance, Ann. Rev. Entomol., 21:179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Sawicki, R. M., and Farnham, A. W., 1967, Genetics of resistance in the SKA strain of Musca domestica. II. Isolation of the dominant factors of resistance to diazinon, Entomol. Exp. Appl., 10:363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Sawicki, R. M., and Farnham, A. W., 1968, Genetics of resistance to insecticides of the SKA strain. III. Location and isolation of the factors of resistance to dieldrin, Entomol. Exp. Appl., 11:133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Terriere, L. C., and Schonbrod, R. D., 1976, Arguments against a fifth chromosomal factor in control of aldrin epoxidation and propoxur resistance in the Fc strain of the housefly, Pestic. Biochem. Physiol., 6:551.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Terriere, L. C., and Yu, S. J., 1973, Insect juvenile hormones: Induction of detoxifying enzymes in the housefly and detoxification by housefly enzymes, Pestic. Biochem. Physiol., 3:96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Tsukamoto, M., and Ogaki, M., 1953, Inheritance of resistance to DDT in Drosophila melanogastev,Botyu-Kagaku, 18:39.Google Scholar
  36. Tsukamoto, M., and Ogaki, M., 1954, Gene analysis of resistance to DDT and BHC in Drosophila melanogastev, Botyu-Kagaku, 19:25.Google Scholar
  37. Tsukamoto, M., and Suzuki, R., 1964, Genetic analysis of DDT-resis-tance in two strains of the housefly, Musca domestica L., Botyu-Kagaku, 29:76.Google Scholar
  38. Tsukamoto, M., and Suzuki, R., 1965, Genetic analysis of diazinon resistance in the house fly, Botyu-Kagaku, 31:1.Google Scholar
  39. Van Asperen, K., and Oppenoorth, F. J., 1959, Organophosphate resistance and esterase activity in houseflies, Entomol. Exp. Appl., 2:48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Walker, C. R., and Terriere, L. C., 1970, Induction of microsomal oxidases by dieldrin in Musca domestica,Entomol. Exp. Appl., 13:260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Wang, T. C., and Plapp, F. W., 1978, Genetics of resistance to organophosphate insecticides and DDT in the house fly, presented at national meetings, Entomol. Soc. Amer., Houston, Texas, November, 1978.Google Scholar
  42. Wang, T. C., and Plapp, F. W., 1980, Genetic studies on the location of a chromosome II gene conferring resistance to parathion in the house fly, J. Econ. Entomol., 73: 200.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • Frederick W. PlappJr.
    • 1
  • T. C. Wang
    • 1
  1. 1.Insecticide Toxicology Laboratory, Department of EntomologyTexas A&M UniversityCollege StationUSA

Personalised recommendations