Advertisement

Laser Light Scattering and Fluorescence in Fuel Rich Flames: Techniques and Selected Results

  • A. D’Alessio
  • F. Beretta
  • A. Cavaliere
  • P. Menna
Part of the NATO Conference Series book series (NATOCS, volume 7)

Abstract

Practical flames are normally produced starting from hydrocarbons mixtures often poorly defined from a chemical point of view; they are introduced into the system in the form of liquid and/or solid particles. The presence of regions where the fuel pyrolysis takes place are almost unavoidable given the intrisic times of the vaporization and devolatilization processes. Consequently lighter compounds like C2H2, C2H4 are generated together with heavier ones like Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) and eventually soot particles. In such systems, the development of optical diagnostics for simultaneous presence of different classes of particles and for the greater variety of the hydrocarbon species presents problems different from those in the lean or stoichiometrc combustion of gaseous fuels. Furthermore the flames show intense luminosity, space inhomogeneity and time fluctuations, due to turbulence or massive recirculation.

Keywords

Soot Particle Diffusion Flame Premix Flame Soot Formation Laser Light Scattering 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    A. D’Alessio, A. Cavaliere and P. Menna, Theoretical Models for Interpretation of Light Scattering by Particles Present in Combustion Systems, presented at the workshop “Soot in Combustion Systems and Its Toxic Properties” sponsored by N.A.T.O. and the University of Haute-Alsace, Le Bischenberg, France September 1981.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    H. C. van de Hulst, “Light Scattering by Small Particles”, J. Wiley, New York (1957)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    F. Beretta, A. Cavalere, and A. D’Alessio, “Experimental and Theoretical Analysis of the Angular Pattern Distribution and Polarization State of the Light Scattered by Isothermal Sprays and Oil Flames”, ASME Winter Annual Meeting, November 15–20, 1981, Washington, D.C., ASME paper 81-WA/HT-49Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    A. D’Alessio, Laser Light Scattering and Fluorescence Diagnostics of Rich Flames Produced by Gaseous and Liquid Fuels, in: “Particulate Carbon: Formation during Combustion”, D. C. Siegla and G. W. Smith, Eds, Plenum Press, New York (1981)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    G. Gouesbet and G. Grehan, The Quasi-Elastic Scattering of Light: A Lecture with Emphasis on Particulate Diagnosis, presented at the workshop “Soot in Combustion Systems and Its Toxic Properties” sponsored by N.A.T.O. and the University of Haute Alsace, Le Bischenberg, France, September 1981Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    M. Lapp and C. M. Penney, Eds., “Laser Raman Gas Diagnostics”, Plenum Press, New York (1974)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    R. Goulard, Ed., “Combustion Measurements”, Part II, Session 6, Academic Press, New York (1976)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    A. C. Eckbreth, P. A. Boneziek and S. F. Verdieck, Combustion Diagnostics by Laser Raman and Fluorescence Techniques, Prog. Energy Combustion Sci. 5: 253 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    R. S. Hall and A. C. Eckbreth, Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy (CARS): Application to Combustion Diagnostics, to be published in Laser Applications, Vol. 5Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    D. A. Stephenson, Raman Cross Sections of Selected Hydrocarbons and Freon, S. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 14: 1291 (1974)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    I. B. Berlman, “Fluorescence Spectra of Aromatic Molecules”, Academic Press, New York (1971)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    H. N. Jaffè and M. Orchin, “Theory and Application of Ultraviolet Spectroscopy, J. Wiley, New York (1962)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    E. Clar, “Polycyclic Hydrocarbons”, Vol. 1 and 2, Academic Press, London (1974)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    J. D. Winefordner, S. G. Schulman and T. C. O’Have r, “Luminescence Spectrometry in Analytical Chemistry”, J. Wiley, New York (1972)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    A. Di Lorenzo, A. D’Alessio, V. Cincotti, S. Masi, P. Menna and C. Venitozzi, “U.V. Absorption, Laser Excited Fluorescence and Direct Sampling in Rich CH4/02 Flames’;, Eighteenth Symposium (Intern’l) on Combustion, The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh (1981)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    R. Barbella, F. Beretta, A. Ciajolo and A. D’Alessio, “Laser Excited Fluorescence and Chromatographic Techniques for the Determination of PAH on a Spray Oil Flame”, paper presented at the Sixth International Symposium on Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Battelle Laboratories, Columbus,Ohio, October 1981Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    G. P. Prado, M. L. Lee, R. A. Hites, D. P. Hoult and J. B. Howard, “Soot and Hydrocarbon Formation in a Turbulent Diffusion Flame”, Sixteenth Symposium (Intern’l) on Combustion, The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh (1981)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    A. D’Alessio, A. Di Lorenzo, A. F. Sarofim, F. Beretta, S. Masi and C. Venitozzi, “Soot Formation in Methane-Oxygen Flames”, Fifteenth Symposium (Intern’l) on Combustion, The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh (1975)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    T. Deinum, D. J. Werkhoven, J. Langelaer, R. P. H. Rettschuick and J. D. W. Van Voorst, Sequence Congestion and Temperature Effects on the Fluorescence of Isolated Pyrene Molecules, Chem. Phys. Lett. 27: 206 (1974)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    D. S. Coe, B. S. Haynes and J. I. Steinfeld, Identification of a Source of Argon-Ion-Laser Excited Fluorescence in Sooting Flames, Combustion and Flame 43: 211 (1981)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    F. Beretta, A. D’Alessio and C. Noviello, in the Research Report “Sugli studi di Fiamme con Metodi Chimico-Fisici” conducted by the Istituto di Ricerche sulla Combustione - C.N.R., Naples under ENEL/CRTN contract (1975)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    F. Beretta, A. Cavaliere, A. D’Alessio and C. Noviello, Visible and U.V. Spectral Emission and Extinction Measurements in Oil Spray Flames, Comb. Sci. Techn. 22: 1 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    K. Sassen, Infrared (10.6 nm) Scattering and Extinction in Laboratory Water and Ice Clouds, Applied Optics 1: 185 (1981)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    P.A.R. Tech. Publ. T - 198AGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    B. S. Haynes and H. Gg. Wagner, Soot Formation, Progr. Energy Comb. Sci. 7: 229 (1981)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    A. D’Alessio, A. Di Lorenzo, A. Borghese, F. Beretta and S. Masi, “Study of the Soot Nucleation Zone of Rich Methane-Oxygen Flames”, Sixteenth Symposium (Intern’l) on Combustion, The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh (1977)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    B. S. Haynes, H. Jander and H. Gg. Wagner, “The Effects of Metal Additives on the Formation of Soot in Premixed Flames”, Seventeenth Symposium (Intern’l) on Combustion, The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh (1979)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    G. Prado, J. Jagoda, K. Neoh and J. Lahaye, “A Study of Soot Formation in Premixed Propane/Oxygen Flames by In-Situ Optical Techniques and Sampling Probes”, Eighteenth Symposium (Intern’l) on Combustion, The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh (1981)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    K. Müller-Dethlefs, ph. D. Thesis, Imperial College, London (1979)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    P. Henna, unpublished resultsGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    E. A. Taft, private communication (1969)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    D. S. Coe and J. I. Steinfeld, Fluorescence Excitation and Emission Spectra of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in an Atmospheric Flame, Chem. Phys. Lett. 76: 485 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    F. Beretta, A. Cavaliere and A. D’Alessio, Laser Excited Fluorescence Measurements in Spray Oil Flames for the Detection of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Soot, Comb. Sci. Techn. 27: 113 (1982)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    F. Beretta, A. Cavaliere, A. Ciajolo, A. D’Alessio, C. Langella, A. Di Lorenzo and C. Noviello, “Laser Light Scattering, Emission/Extinction Spectroscopy and Thermogravimetric Analysis in the Study of Soot Behaviour in Oil Spray Flames”, Eighteenth Symposium (Intern’l) on Combustion, The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh (1981).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. D’Alessio
    • 1
  • F. Beretta
    • 1
  • A. Cavaliere
    • 1
  • P. Menna
    • 1
  1. 1.Istituto di Ricerche sulla Combustione C.N.R.Istituto di Chimica Industriale e Impianti Chimici UniversitàNaplesItaly

Personalised recommendations