Human-Human Hybridoma Monoclonal Antibodies in Diagnosis and Treatment of Neoplastic Disease
A new era in immunology was introduced by Köhler and Milstein (1975, 1976) when they devised a method for the production of mouse “hybridomas” capable of secreting monoclonal antibodies of predefined antigenic specificity. Immunologists were liberated from the constraints and difficulties previously associated with the preparation and use of heteroantisera, since the clonal selection and immortality of hybridoma cell lines assure the monoclonality, monospecificity, and permanent availability of their antibody products. However, although monoclonal antibodies of murine or other rodent origin have been extraordinarily powerful new reagents in laboratory investigations, their clinical use is likely to be severely limited by the fact that they are foreign proteins. Human immunoglobulin-producing cells have been fused to mouse myeloma cells to generate chimeric hybridomas (Schwaber, 1975; Levy and Dilley, 1978). Although there have been rare instances in which long-term, stable production of human antibody has thus been achieved (Schlom et al., 1980), most such hybrids have tended to be highly unstable due to the selective loss of human chromosomes. An alternative approach to the generation of antibody-producing human lymphocyte cell lines has involved the transformation of human B-lymphocytes with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) (Steinitz et al., 1977; Zurawski et al., 1978; Koskimies, 1979) but this method appears to be of limited practical usefulness because the cultures tend to cease antibody production after a variable period (Zurawski et al., 1978).
KeywordsMyeloma Cell Human Monoclonal Antibody Myeloma Cell Line Murine Monoclonal Antibody Murine Antibody
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