Advertisement

World Endemic Disease

Costs and Potential Fiscal Benefits of Medical Research
  • Graham V. Brown
  • G. J. V. Nossal

Abstract

Parasitic diseases are rampant throughout the world. In 1976, according to WHO estimates, 1.2 billion people lived in areas where malaria continued to flourish despite some programs for control in areas where three-quarters of these people lived.1 An estimated 180–250 million people are infected with schistosomiasis, and in 1971 about 650 million people were thought to have ascariasis (roundworms).2 Some campaigns to control malaria were partially successful in the 1950s and 1960s but there has been a resurgence of the disease in many countries including Indonesia, Sri Lanka, and the Indian subcontinent. The number of reported malaria cases increased by over 230% between 1972 and 1976,3 and there is the ever-present threat of epidemic disease in a nonimmune population.

Keywords

Royal Society Malaria Control Parasitic Disease Tropical Disease Schistosomiasis Control 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Bloom, B. R., 1979, Games parasites play: how parasites evade immune surveillance, Nature 279:21–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Malaria Processed Report for the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases, 1976, World Health Organization, Geneva.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Health, Sector policy paper, 1980, World Bank, Washington, D.C., p. 14.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Morrow, R. H., Smith, P. G., and Nimo, K. P., 1980, A quantitative method of assessing the health impact of different diseases in less developed countries, Report of UNDP/World Bank/WHO Special Program for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases, TDR/SER/SWG(2)/80 WP3a.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Prescott, N. M., 1980, The economics of malaria, filariasis and human trypanosomiasis, Report of UNDP/World Bank/WHO/Special Program for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases, TDR/SER(SC-1)/80.4.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Pampana, E., 1969, The cost of malaria and its eradication, in: A Textbook of Malaria Eradication, Oxford University Press, New York, Chapter 17.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Prescott, N. M., 1980, On the benefits of tropical disease control, in: Health Policy in Developing Countries, Royal Society of Medicine International Congress and Symposium Series No. 24 (C. Wood and Y. Rue, eds.), Royal Society of Medicine and Academic Press, London, Grune & Stratton, New York (U.S. edition), pp. 43–45.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    San Pedro, C., 1967, Philipp. J. Public Health 12:5Google Scholar
  9. 8a.
    quoted in Prescott, N. M., 1980, On the benefits of tropical disease control, in: Health Policy in Developing Countries, Royal Society of Medicine International Congress and Symposium Series No. 24 (C. Wood and Y. Rue, eds.), Royal Society of Medicine and Academic Press, London, Grune & Stratton, New York (U.S. edition).Google Scholar
  10. 9.
    Sinton, J. A., 1935, Rec. Malar. Surv. India 5:223 and 413, and 6:96Google Scholar
  11. 9a.
    quoted in Prescott, N. M., 1980, On the benefits of tropical disease control, in: Health Policy in Developing Countries, Royal Society of Medicine International Congress and Symposium Series No. 24 (C. Wood and Y. Rue, eds.), Royal Society of Medicine and Academic Press, London, Grune & Stratton, New York (U.S. edition), pp. 43–45.Google Scholar
  12. 10.
    Conly, G. N., 1975, The Impact of Malaria on Economic Development: A Case Study, Pan American Health Organization, Pan American Sanitary Bureau, Regional Office of the World Health Organization, Scientific Publication No. 297.Google Scholar
  13. 11.
    Giglioli, G., 1972, Changes in the pattern of mortality following the eradication of hyperendemic malaria from a highly susceptible community, Bull. WHO 46:181–202.Google Scholar
  14. 12.
    Pant, C. P., and Gratz, N. G., 1979, Malaria and agricultural development, Outlook Agric. 10(3):111–115.Google Scholar
  15. 13.
    Tropical Diseases, 1976, World Health Organization, Geneva.Google Scholar
  16. 14.
    Plan of operations for a comprehensive approach to the prevention and control of water-associated diseases in the irrigated schemes, Gezira Province, Sudan, Report of UNDP/World Bank/WHO Special Program for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases, EM/SUD/VBC/001, 1979.Google Scholar
  17. 15.
    Bruce-Chwatt, L. J., 1978, Chapter 5, in: Tropical Medicine: From Romance to Reality (C. Wood, ed.), Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  18. 16.
    Jeffery, G. M., 1976, Malaria control in the twentieth century, Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 25:361–371.Google Scholar
  19. 17.
    Borrelly, R., 1976, A method of analyzing the socioeconomic aspects of the feasibility of malaria control programmes, Progress Report of UNDP/World Bank/WHO Special Program for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases, WHO IR/ARI/007.Google Scholar
  20. 18.
    Cohen, S., McGregor, I. A., and Carrington, S. C., 1961, Gammaglobulin and acquired immunity to malaria, Nature 192:733–737.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 19.
    Trager, W., and Jensen, J. B., 1976, Human malaria parasites in continuous culture, Science 193:673–675.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 20.
    Reese, R. T., Trager, W., Jensen, J. B., Miller, D. A., and Tantravahi, R., 1978, Immunization against malaria with antigen from Plasmodium falciparum cultivated in vitro, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 75:5665–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 21.
    Köhler, G., and Milstein, C., 1975, Continuous cultures of fused cells secreting antibody of pre-defined specificity, Nature 256:495–497.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 22.
    Yoshida, N., Nussenzweig, R. S., Potocnjak, P., Nussenzweig, V., and Aikawa, M., 1980, Hybridoma produces protective antibodies directed against the sporozoite stage of malaria parasite, Science 207:71–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 23.
    Freeman, R. R., Trejdosiewicz, A. H. J., and Cross, G. A. M., 1980, Protective monoclonal antibodies recognizing stage-specific merozoite antigens of a rodent malaria parasite, Nature 284:366–367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 24.
    Perrin, L. H., Ramirez, E., Lambert, P. H., and Miescher, P. A., 1981, Inhibition of P. falciparum growth in human erythrocytes by monoclonal antibodies, Nature 289:301–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 25.
    Carter, R., and Chen, D. H., 1976, Malaria transmission blocked by immunization with gametes of the malaria parasite, Nature 263:57–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 26.
    Callow, L. L., and Mellors, L. T., 1966, A new vaccine for Babesia argentina infection prepared in splenectomized calves, Aust. Vet. J. 42:464–465.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 27.
    Second General Report of the Malaria Commission of the League of Nations Health Organization, 1927, quoted in Jeffrey, G. M., 1976, Malaria control in the twentieth century, Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 25:361–371.Google Scholar
  30. 28.
    Weiler, T. H., 1974, World health in a changing world, Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 77(Supplement):54–61.Google Scholar
  31. 29.
    Wilcocks, C., and Manson-Bahr, P. E. C. (eds.), 1972, Manson’s Tropical Diseases, Bailliere Tindall, London, p. 247.Google Scholar
  32. 30.
    Brown, H. W., 1975, Basic Clinical Parasitology, 4th edition, Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York.Google Scholar
  33. 31.
    Latham, L., Latham, M., and Basta, S. S., 1977, The nutritional and economic implications of ascaris infection in Kenya, World Bank Staff Working Paper No. 271, World Bank, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  34. 32.
    Willett, W. C., Kilama, W. L., and Kihamia, C. M., 1979, Ascaris and growth rates: A randomized trial of treatment, Am. J. Public Health 69:987–991.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 33.
    Layrisse, M., and Roche, M., 1964, The relationship between anemia and hookworm infection, Am. J. Hyg. 79:279–301.Google Scholar
  36. 34.
    Basta, S. S., Soekirman, M. S., Karyadi, D., and Scrimshaw, N. S., 1979, Iron deficiency anemia and the productivity of adult males in Indonesia, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 32:916–925.Google Scholar
  37. 35.
    Davies, C. T. M., 1973, Relationship of maximum aerobic power output to productivity and absenteeism of East African sugar cane workers, Br. J. Ind. Med. 30:146–154.Google Scholar
  38. 36.
    Davies, C. T. M., and van Haanen, J. P., 1973, Effect of treatment on physiological responses to exercise in East African industrial workers with iron deficiency anaemia, Br. J. Ind. Med. 30:335–340.Google Scholar
  39. 37.
    Baker, S. J., 1978, Nutritional anaemia—a major controllable public health problem, Bull. WHO 50(5):659–675.Google Scholar
  40. 38.
    Baker, S. J., and de Maeyer, E. M., 1979, Nutritional anaemia: Its understanding and control with special reference to the work of the World Health Organization, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 32(2):368–417.Google Scholar
  41. 39.
    Miller, T. A., 1966, Comparison of the immunogenic efficiencies of normal and x-irradiated Ancylostoma caninum larvae in dogs, J. Parasitol. 52:512.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 40.
    Hoffman, D. B., 1979, Schistosomiasis Research: The Strategic Plan, Edna McConnell Clark Foundation, New York.Google Scholar
  43. 41.
    Prescott, N. M., 1979, Schistosomiasis and development, World Dev. 7(1):1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 42.
    Foster, R., 1967, Schistosomiasis on an irrigated estate in East Africa: III. Effects of asymptomatic infection on health and industrial efficiency, Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 70:185–195.Google Scholar
  45. 43.
    Fenwick, A., and Figenschou, B. H., 1972, The effect of Schistosoma mansoni on the productivity of cane cutters on a sugar estate in Tanzania, Bull. WHO 47:507–572.Google Scholar
  46. 44.
    El Karim, M. A. A., 1980, An assessment of physical performance in Gezira population infected with schistosomiasis, World Health Organization TDR/ SER/SWG(2)/80 WP2.Google Scholar
  47. 45.
    Research on the epidemiology and methodology of schistosomiasis control in man-made lakes: Project findings and recommendations, Report prepared for the Governments of Ghana and Egypt by the World Health Organization acting as Executing Agency for the United Nations Development Programme, 1979, PDP/79.2, United Nations Development Programme and the World Health Organization, Geneva.Google Scholar
  48. 46.
    Bruijuing, C. F., 1980, Control of schistosomiasis in the Peoples’ Republic of China, in: Health Policy in Developing Countries, Royal Society of Medicine International Congress and Symposium Series No. 24 (C. Wood and Y. Rue, eds.), Royal Society of Medicine and Academic Press, London, Grune & Stratton, New York (U.S. edition), pp. 43–45.Google Scholar
  49. 47.
    Rosenfield, P. L., 1980, Schistosomiasis transmission and control: The human content, Report of UNDP/World Bank/WHO Special Program for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases, TDR/SER/(SC-1)/80.5.Google Scholar
  50. 48.
    Mitchell, G. F., Cruise, K. M., Garcia, E. G., and Anders, R. F., 1981, A hybridoma-derived antibody with immunodiagnostic potential for schistosomiasis japonica, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 78:3165–3169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 49.
    Butterworth, A. E., David, J. R., Franks, D., Mahmoud, A. A. F., David, P. H., Sturrock, R. F., and Houba, V., 1977, Antibody-dependent cell-mediated damage to 51Cr-labeled schistosomula of Schistosoma mansoni: Damage by purified eosinophils, J. Exp. Med. 145:136–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 50.
    Majid, A. A., Bushara, H. O., Saad, A. M., Hussein, M. F., Taylor, M. G., Dangie, J. D., Marshall, T. F. de C., and Nelson, G. S., 1980, Observations on cattle schistosomiasis in the Sudan, a study in comparative medicine: Part 3: Field testing of an irradiated S. bovis vaccine, Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 29:452–455.Google Scholar
  53. 51.
    Basu, P. C., 1971, Interpretation of eight years data in the control of W. bancrofti filariasis in urban areas of India by vector controls using conventional antilarval measures, J. Parasitol. 57:57–58.Google Scholar
  54. 52.
    World Bank, 1978, Onchocerciasis control programme: Economic review mission, unpublished document, World Bank, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  55. 52a.
    cited in Prescott, N. M., 1980, On the benefits of tropical disease control, in: Health Policy in Developing Countries, Royal Society of Medicine International Congress and Symposium Series No. 24 (C. Wood and Y. Rue, eds.), Royal Society of Medicine and Academic Press, London, Grune & Stratton, New York (U.S. edition), pp. 43–45.Google Scholar
  56. 53.
    Rolland, A., 1972, Onchocerciasis in the village of Saint Pierre: An unhappy experience of repopulation in an uncontrolled endemic area, Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 66(6):913–915.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 54.
    Bradley, A. K., 1976, Effects of onchocerciasis on settlement in the Middle Hawal Valley, Nigeria, Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 70:225–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 55.
    Bazin, M., 1980, The economic aspects of the onchocerciasis control programme in the Volta Basin, in: Health Policy in Developing Countries, Royal Society of Medicine International Congress and Symposium Series No. 24 (C. Wood and Y. Rue, eds.), Royal Society of Medicine and Academic Press, London, Grune and Stratton, New York (U.S. edition), pp. 31–32.Google Scholar
  59. 56.
    Nelson, G. S., 1980, Research as an aid to filariasis and onchocerciasis control, in: Health Policy in Developing Countries, Royal Society of Medicine International Congress and Symposium Series No. 24 (C. Wood and Y. Rue, eds.), Royal Society of Medicine and Academic Press, London, Grune & Stratton, New York (U.S. edition), pp. 167–172.Google Scholar
  60. 57.
    De Raadt, P., 1976, African sleeping sickness today, Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 70(2):114–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 58.
    Nash, T. A. M., 1960, A review of the African trypanosomiasis problem, Trop. Dis. Bull. 57:973–1003.Google Scholar
  62. 59.
    McConnell, E., and Baker, J. R., 1970, A further look at sleeping sickness in Ethiopia, Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 64:162–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 60.
    Cross, G. A. M., 1975, Identification, purification and properties of clone-specific glycoprotein antigens constituting the surface coat of Trypanosoma brucei, Parasitology 71:393–417.Google Scholar
  64. 61.
    Capbern, A., Giroud, C., Baltz, T., and Mattens, P., 1977, Trypanosoma equiperdum: étude des variations antigeniques au cours de la trypanosomose experimentale du lapin, Exp. Parasitol. 42:6–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 62.
    Hoejimakers, J. H. J., Borst, P., Van den Burg, J., Weissman, C., and Cross, G. A. M., 1980, The isolation of plasmids containing DNA complementary to messenger RNA for variant surface glycoproteins of Trypanosoma brucei, Gene 8:391–417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 63.
    Hoeijmakers, J. H. J., Frasch, A. C., Bernards, A., Borst, P., and Cross, G. A. M., 1980, Novel expression-linked copies of the genes for variant surface antigens in trypanosomes, Nature 284:78–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 64.
    Williams R. O., Young, J. R., and Majiwa, P. A. O., 1979, Genomic rearrangements correlated with antigenic variation in Trypanosoma brucei, Nature 282:847–849.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 65.
    Annual Summary, 1979, Reported morbidity and mortality in the United States, Morbidity Mortality Weekly Rep., 1980, 28(54), U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta.Google Scholar
  69. 66.
    The global eradication of smallpox, 1980, WHO, Geneva, p. 64.Google Scholar
  70. 67.
    Schultz, M. G., 1980, The forgotten problems of forgotten people, in: Health Policy in Developing Countries, Royal Society of Medicine International Congress and Symposium Series No. 24 (C. Wood and Y. Rue, eds.), Royal Society of Medicine and Academic Press, London, Grune & Stratton, New York (U.S. edition), pp. 57–62.Google Scholar
  71. 68.
    Warren, K. S., and Romney, H., 1978, Tropical medicine revisited, The Rockefeller Foundation Illustrated 4(2).Google Scholar
  72. 69.
    Oomen, A. P., 1980, African lessons for Western medicine, in: Health Policy in Developing Countries, Royal Society of Medicine International Congress and Symposium Series No. 24 (C. Wood and Y. Rue, eds.), Royal Society of Medicine and Academic Press, London, Grune & Stratton, New York (U.S. edition), pp. 31–32.Google Scholar
  73. 70.
    Vadas, M. A., Butterworth, A. E., Sherry, B., Dessein, A., Hogan, M., Bout, D., and David, J. R., 1980, Interactions between human eosinophils and schistosomula of Schistosoma mansoni, J. Immunol. 124:1441–1448.Google Scholar
  74. 71.
    Forsyth, K. P., Copeman, D. B., Abbot, A. P., Anders, R. F., and Mitchell, G. F., 1981, Identification of radioiodinated surface proteins and antigens of Onchocerca gibsoni microfilariae, Acta Trop. 38:329–342.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • Graham V. Brown
    • 1
  • G. J. V. Nossal
    • 1
  1. 1.The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical ResearchRoyal Melbourne HospitalAustralia

Personalised recommendations