Random Nature of Service Demands

  • Sushil G. Munshi
Part of the Applications of Communications Theory book series (ACTH)


In the course of conducting our normal daily business, we encounter situations where our demands are not immediately satisfied, for example, at taxi stands, banks, post offices. Some of these situations are tolerable, others are frustrating but beyond our control. The degree of importance of the service sought influences the choice between abandoning the service demand or increasing our threshold of tolerance and waiting until the demand is satisfied. In this chapter we will describe the nature of one such service demand, telephone calls, and characterize this demand in mathematical terms. The chapter is intended to provide an introduction to congestion problems and how they influence the design and engineering of digital switching systems. No attempt is made to derive the theory or offer solutions for specific congestion problems. The interested reader should consult the references listed at the end of the chapter for further study.


Service Time Traffic Load Line Module Busy Period Service Demand 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    W. S. Hayward, Jr. and R. I. Wilkinson, “Human Factors in Telephone Systems and Their Influence on Traffic Theory, Especially with Regard to Future Facilities,” Sixth International Teletraffic Congress (ITC), Paper 431, 1970.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    P. K. Roy Choudhury, M. N. Shukla, and T. R. Wadhwa, “Effect of Subscriber Behaviour and Traffic Administration on the Design of SPC Exchanges,” Ninth ITC. Paper 148, 1979.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    A. Myskja and O. O. Walmann, “A Statistical Study of Telephone Traffic Data with Emphasis on Subscriber Behaviour,” Seventh ITC, Paper 132, 1973.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    R. R. Mina, Introduction to Teletraffic Engineering, Telephony Publishing Corporation, Chicago, 1974.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    R. I. Wilkinson, “Theories for Toll Traffic Engineering in the U.S.A.,” Bell Syst. Tech. J., vol. 35, pp. 421–514, 1956.MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    A. Kuczura, “Loss Systems with Mixed Renewal and Poisson Inputs,” Seventh ITC, Paper 412, 1973.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    K. S. Liu, “Direct Distance Call Completion and Customer Retrial Behaviour,” Ninth ITC, Paper 144, 1979.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    P. LeGall, “Sur L’Influence des Repititions d’Appels dans l’Ecoulement du Traffic Telephonique,” Sixth ITC, Paper 432, 1970.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    F. Duffy and R. A. Mercer, “A Study of Network Performance and Customer Behaviour During Direct Distance Dialing Call Attempts in the U.S.A.,” Bell Syst. Tech. J., vol. 57, No. 1, 1978.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    K. Rahko, “A Study of the Traffic Process Based on Measurements,” Sixth ITC, Paper 537, 1970.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    D. Bear, “Some Theories of Telephone Traffic Distribution: A Critical Survey,” Seventh ITC, Paper 531, 1973.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    R. Syski, Congestion Theory in Telephone Systems, Oliver and Boyd, London, 1960.MATHGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    R. B. Cooper, Introduction to Queuing Theory, The Macmillan Company, New York and London, 1972.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    E. Arthurs and B. W. Stuck, A Theoretical Performance Analysis of Markovian Nodes, IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. COM-26, No. 11, 1978.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    R. V. Laue and R. K. Even, “Traffic Consideration for Line Concentrators,” National Telecommunication Conference, 1977.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    D. H. Barnes, “Extreme Value Engineering of Small Switching Offices,” Eighth ITC, Paper 242, 1976.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    K. A. Friedman, “Extreme Value Analysis Techniques,” Ninth ITC, Paper 313, 1979.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    W. B. Elsner, “Dimensioning Trunk Groups for Digital Networks,” Ninth ITC, Paper 421, 1979.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sushil G. Munshi
    • 1
  1. 1.Technology Planning DepartmentUnited Telecommunications Inc.Kansas CityUSA

Personalised recommendations