Cryocoolers pp 129-175 | Cite as

Fundamentals of Alternate Cooling Systems

  • Ray Radebaugh
Part of the The International Cryogenics Monograph Series book series (ICMS)


In spite of great scientific strides over the last century, the refrigeration principles used today are, for the most part, the same as those used for the last century. These principles were refined between the period of the first liquefaction of air in 1877 by Cailletet and Pictet and the first liquefaction of helium by Onnes in 1908. The mechanical work required for these gas systems presents difficult engineering problems. However, considerable engineering progress has been made since that time so that such cryogenic refrigerators or liquefiers have moved from the category of laboratory devices to industrial machines. Still further engineering strides are needed to make such refrigerators sufficiently reliable, inexpensive, and efficient to be used regularly for many other potential application areas.


Entropy Change Generalize Force Refrigeration System Dilution Refrigerator Refrigeration Cycle 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ray Radebaugh
    • 1
  1. 1.Thermophysical Properties DivisionNational Bureau of StandardsBoulderUSA

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