The Embryology of Birth Defects

Malformations vs. Deformations vs. Disruptions
  • Kenneth Lyons Jones
  • H. Eugene Hoyme


The field of dysmorphology has expanded dramatically over the past ten years, a period during which not only the number of recognizable patterns of malformations has more than doubled, but great strides have been made in our understanding of the developmental pathology of structural defects. The benefit of this increased knowledge to children affected with birth defects and to their parents is immeasurable since appropriate recurrence risk counseling and information regarding prognosis are possible only in those situations where a definitive diagnosis can be made and/or the developmental pathology is understood.


Branchial Arch Renal Agenesis Palatal Shelf Monozygotic Twin Pair Control Cell Death 
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Copyright information

© Aubrey Milunsky, Emanuel A. Friedman, and Louis Gluck 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kenneth Lyons Jones
    • 1
  • H. Eugene Hoyme
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Dysmorphology, Department of Pediatrics, School of MedicineUniversity of California, San DiegoLa JollaUSA

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