Methodological Aspects of Tele-Stimulation in Primates
Since W.R. Hess (1928) discovered that electrical stimulation of certain structures of the central nervous system can cause complex behavioral events, the method of electrical brain stimulation has been used by many scientists in studying the relationships between behavioral events and brain structures. For this purpose, they implanted electrodes of various types, such as monopolar, bipolar, bipolar-concentric or multipolar electrodes, in the substrate to be stimulated. There was just as much variety in the application of the electrical current. Some of the experimenters used sinusoidal alternating current of different frequencies, others rectangular, trapezoid, or spiked pulses (both monophasic and biphasic). The current reached the electrodes via thin wires which, of course, interfered with the movements of the animals. Therefore, in the 1930’s, first attempts were made to develop wireless stimulation equipment. For such stimulation, a transmitter and a receiver are required. Whereas the construction of the transmitter represented no problems, the receiver had to meet extremely strict requirements. As it was to be carried by the animals, it had to be very small and light, and extremely stable. In addition it was not to interfere too much with the movements of the animals and not to damage the tissue stimulated. These requirements called for small electronic elements and small batteries of low weight but high capacity. They were not available until the 1950’s.
KeywordsSquirrel Monkey Radio Frequency Field Train Duration Electrical Brain Stimulation Small Batterie
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