Advertisement

Neural Controls of Energy Homeostasis Caudal to the Forebrain

  • Harvey J. Grill
Part of the NATO Advanced Science Institutes Series book series (NSSA, volume 56)

Abstract

The forebrain, particularly the hypothalamus, has loomed large in our thinking about the neural control of motivational states, particularly the behavioral and autonomic responses of energy balance in mammals. This hypothalamic focus derives from a variety of experimental strategies including ablation, focal lesioning, brain stimulation, and single unit recording. Bard (1939, 1940) demonstrated that the hypothalamus is required for the hormonal control of sexual behavior. Genital stimulation elicited a stereotyped pattern of sexual consummatory behavior in the absence of hormones in spinal and decerebrated cats. At the hypothalamic level, however, these sexual consummatory acts became hormonally controlled — as they are in intact cats. Subsequently, hypothalamic control over most hormonal functions has been directly demonstrated. Neurons which manufacture polypetide hormones and releasing factors as well as neurons sensitive to humoral substances manufactored outside the brain have been localized within the hypothalamus (Pfaff et al., 1973; Hayward, 1977). A different methodology — electrical stimulation and lesions of diencephalic sites — had also focused attention on the hypothalamus. The studies of Hess (1958) demonstrated that a wide range of autonomic responses capable of altering energy homeostasis could be elicited by focal hypothalamic stimulation. Subsequent studies have continued to infer a role for the hypothalamus in autonomic response elicitation. The specific anatomical and physiological substrate of this control, however, has only begun to be elucidated (Norgren, 1976; Beckstead et al., 1980; Ciriello and Calaresu, 1980).

Keywords

Food Deprivation Energy Homeostasis Kainic Acid Neural Control Response Sequence 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Armstrong, S., 1980, A chronometric approach to the study of feeding behavior. Neurosci. and Behav. Rev., 4:27–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bard, P., 1939, Central nervous mechanisms for emotional behavior patterns in animals. Res. Publ. Assn. Res. Nerv. Ment. Dis., 19:190–215.Google Scholar
  3. Bard, P., 1940, The hypothalamus ana sexual behavior. Res.Publ. Assn. Res. Nerv. Ment. Dis., 20:551–579.Google Scholar
  4. Beckstead, R., Morse, J., and Norgren, R., 1980, The nucleus of the solitary tract in the monkey: Projections to thalamus and other brainstem nuclei. J. Comp. Neurol., 90:259–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ciriello, J., and Calaresu, F.R., 1980, Monosynaptic pathway from cardio-vascular neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarii to the paraventricular nucleus in the rat. Brain Res., 193:529–533.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Contreras, R., Gomez, M., and Norgren, R., 1980, Central origins of cranial nerve parasympathetic neurons in the rat. J. Comp. Neurol., 190:373–394.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Davis, J.D., Collins, B.J., and Levine, M.W., 1975, Peripheral control of drinking: Gastrointestinal filling as a negative feedback signal, a theoretical and experimental analysis. J. Comp. Physiol. Psych., 89:985–1002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. DiRocco, R.J., and Grill, H.J., 1979, The forebrain is not essential for sympathoadrenal hyperglycemic response to glucoprivation. Science, 204:1112–1114.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Freed, E.K., and Grill, H.J., 1979, Levels of function in rat grooming behavior. Soc. Neurosci. Abstr., 5:468.Google Scholar
  10. Friedman, M.I., 1980, Hepatic-cerebral interactions in insulin-induced eating and gastric acid secretion. Brain Res. Bull.5, Suppl. 4:63–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Friedman, M.I., and Stricker, E.M., 1976, The physiological psychology of hunger: A physiological perspective. Psych. Rev., 83:409–431.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Grill, H.J., 1975, Sucrose as an aversive stimulus. Soc. Neurosci. Abstr., 1:525.Google Scholar
  13. Grill, H.J., 1980, Production and regulation of ingestive cosummatory behavior in the chronic decerebrate rat. Brain Res. Bull. 5, Suppl. 4:79–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Grill, H.J., and Berridge, K., 1981, Chronic decerebrate rats demonstrate preabsorbtive insulin secretion and hyperinsulinemia. Soc. Neurosci. Abstr., 7:29.Google Scholar
  15. Grill, H.J., and Norgren, R., 1978, The taste reactivity test I: Mimetic responses to gustatory stimuli in neurologically normal rats. Brain Res., 143:263–280.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Grill, H.J., and Norgren, R., 1978, The taste reactivity test II: Mimetic responses to gustatory stimuli in chronic thalamic and chronic decerebrate rats. Brain Res., 143:281–298.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Grill, H.J., and Norgren, R., 1978, Neurological tests and behavioral deficits in chronic thalamic and chronic decerebrate rats. Brain Res., 143:299–312.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Grill, H.J., and Norgren, R., 1978, Chronically decerebrate rats demonstrate satiation but not baitshyness. Science, 201:267–269.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Grossman, S.P., 1975, Role of the hypothalamus in the regulation of food and water intake. Psych.Rev., 82:200–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Grossman, S.P., Dacey, D., Halaris, A.E., Collier, T., and Routtenberg, A., 1978, Aphasia and adipsia after preferential destruction of nerve cell bodies in hypothalamus. Science, 202:537–539.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hayward, J.N., 1977, Functional and morphological aspects of hypothalamic neurons. Physiol. Rev., 57:574.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Hess, W.R., 1958, “The Functional Organization of the Diencephalon”, Grune and Stratton, New York.Google Scholar
  23. Himsworth, R.L., 1970, Hypothalamic control of adrenaline secretion in response to insufficient glucose. J. Physiol., 206:411–417.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Maes, J.P., 1939, Neural mechanisms of sexual behaviour in the female rat. Nature (London), 144:598–599.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. McHugh, P.R., and Moran, T.H., 1979, Calories and gastric emptying: A regulatory capacity with implications for feeding. Amer. J. Physiol., 236(5):R254–R260.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Morgane, P.J., and Pankshep, J., eds., 1979, 1980, “Handbook of the Hypothalamus” Vol.1–3, Marcell Dekker, New York.Google Scholar
  27. Mountcastle, V.B., 1978, An organizing principle for cerebral function: The unit module and the distributed system, in “The Mindful Brain”, G.M. Edelman and V.B. Mountcastle, eds., MIT Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  28. Norgren, R., 1976, Taste pathways to hypothalamus and amygdala. J. Comp. Neurol., 166:17–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Oomura, Y., 1976, Significance of glucose, insulin, and free fatty acid on the hypothalamic feeding and satiety neurons, in “Hunger: Basic Mechanisms and Clinical Implications”, D. Novin, W. Wyrwicka and G.A. Bray, eds., Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  30. Pfaff, D., Lewis, C., Diakow, C., and Keiner, M., 1973, Neurophysiological analysis of mating behavior responses as hormone-sensitive reflexes. Prog. Physiol. Psych., 5:253–297.Google Scholar
  31. Powley, T.L., 1977, The ventromedial hypothalamic syndrome, satiety and cephalic phase hypothesis. Psych. Rev., 84:89–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Rolls, E.T., 1978, Neurophysiology of feeding. TINS, 1:1–4.Google Scholar
  33. Russek, M., 1971, Current hypotheses in the control of feeding behavior, in “Neuroscience Research” Vol.4, S. Ehrenpreis, ed., Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  34. Silverstone, J.T., 1976, The CNS and feeding: Group report, in “Dahlem Workshop on Appetite and Food Intake”, Abakon Verlagsgesellschaft, Berlin.Google Scholar
  35. Smith, G.P., and Gibbs, J., 1976, Cholecystokin and satiety: Theoretic and therapeutic implications, in “Hunger: Basic Mechanisms and Clinical Implications”, D. Novin, W. Wyrwicka and G. Bray, eds., Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  36. Steiner, J., 1977, Facial expressions of the neonate infant indicating the hedonics of food-related chemical stimuli, in “Taste and Development: The Genesis of Sweet Preference”, J.M. Weiffenbach, ed., US Dept. of Health, Education and Welfare, Bethesda, MD.Google Scholar
  37. Stellar, E., 1954, The physiology of motivation. Psych.Rev., 61:5–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Stricker, E.M., and Zigmond, M.J., 1976, Recovery of function after damage to central catechol amine-containing neurons: A neurochemical model for the lateral hypothalamic syndrome, in “Progress in Psychobiology and Physiological Psychology”, J.F.M. Sprague and A.N. Epstein, eds., Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  39. Stricker, E.M., Swerdloff, A.F., and Zigmond, M.J., 1978, Intrahypothalamic injections of kainic acid produce feeding and drinkig deficits in rat. Brain Res., 158:470–473.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Tang, P.C., 1955, Levels of brainstem and diencephalon controlling micturition reflex. J. Neurophysiol., 18:583–595.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Taylor, J., 1958, “Selected Writings of John Hughlings Jackson” Vol.2, Basic Books, New York.Google Scholar
  42. Teitelbaum, P., 1967, “Physiological Psychology”, Prentice Hall Inc., Englewood Cliffs.Google Scholar
  43. Toates, F.M., 1979, Homeostasis and drinking. The Behav. and Brain Sci., 2:95–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Tinbergen, M., 1951, “The Study of Instinct”, Oxford University Press, London.Google Scholar
  45. Ungerstedt, U., 1971, Adipsia amd aphagia after 6-hydroxydopamine induced degeneration of the nigro-striatal dopamine system. Acta Physiol. Scand., Suppl.82:367.Google Scholar
  46. Wang, G.H., and Hind, J.E., 1959, Supraspinal origin of a poststimulatory long-lasting inhibition of galvanic skin reflex. J. Neurophysiol., 22:360–366.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • Harvey J. Grill
    • 1
  1. 1.Dept. of Psychology and Inst. of Neurological ScienceUniversity of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA

Personalised recommendations