Advertisement

Visuomotor Organization of Pecking in the Pigeon

  • Melvyn A. Goodale
Part of the NATO Advanced Science Institutes Series book series (NSSA, volume 56)

Abstract

The visual field of the pigeon, like that of many birds, is largely monocular and panoramic. Only a limited portion of the field immediately in front of and below the beak is binocular (Martinoya et al., 1981). This binocular portion of the field corresponds to a region in the upper temporal quadrant of the retina — the so-called red area or red field — where many of the cones contain red oil droplets. The red area has a relatively high tectal magnification factor and a ganglion cell density comparable to that of the central fovea in the monocular field (Binggeli and Paule, 1969; Clarke and Whitteridge, 1976; Galifret, 1968; Nye, 1973; Whitteridge, 1965; Yazulla, 1974), all of which suggest an area specialized for acute vision comparable to the fovea itself. The near-point of accommodation for this portion of the field, however, has been found to be much closer than that of the lateral fields (Nye, 1973). In short, there appear to be two areas of specialization within the pigeon retina: (i) a central fovea for viewing distant objects within the monocular field, and (ii) another area of acute binocular vision in the red area for viewing stimuli located only a few centimeters away from the beak.

Keywords

Negative Trial Positive Trial Normal Feeding Head Fixation Interocular Transfer 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Binggeli, R.L., and Paule, W.J., 1969, The pigeon retina: Quantitative aspects of the optic nerve and ganglion cell layer. J. Comp. Neurol., 137:1–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Clarke, P.G.H., and Whitteridge, D., 1976, The projection of the retina, including the “red area”, on to the optic tectum of the pigeon. Quart. J. Exp. Physiol., 61:351–358.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Galifret, Y., 1968, Les diverses aires fonctionelles de la retine du pigeon. Z. Zellforsch., 86:535–545.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Goodale, M.A., and Graves, J.A., 1982, Interocular transfer in the pigeon: Retinal locus as a factor, in “Analysis of Visual Behavior”, D. Ingle, M.A. Goodale and R. Mansfield, eds., M.I.T. Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  5. Graves, J.A., and Goodale, M.A., 1979, Do training conditions affect interocular transfer in the pigeon? in “Structure and Function of the Cerebral Commissures”, I. Steele-Russell, M.van Hof, and G. Berlucchi, eds., Macmillan, London.Google Scholar
  6. Hodos, W., Leibowitz, R., and Bonbright, J.C., 1976, Near-field visual acuity of pigeons: Effects of head location and stimulus luminance. J. Exp. Anal. Behav., 25:129–141.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Jenkins, H.M., and Moore, B.R., 1973, The form of autoshaped response with food or water reinforcers. J. Exp. Anal. Behav., 20:163–181.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Jenkins, H.M., and Sainsbury, R.S., 1970, Discrimination learning with the distinctive feature on positive or negative trials, in “Attention: Contemporary Theory and Analysis”, D.I. Mostofsky, ed., Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York.Google Scholar
  9. Martinoya, C., Rey, J., and Bloch, S., 1981, Limits of the pigeon’s binocular field and direction for best binocular viewing. Vis. Res., 21:1197–1200.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Nye, P.W., 1973, On the functional differences between frontal and lateral visual fields of the pigeon. Vis. Res., 13:559–574.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Whitteridge, D., 1965, Geometrical relations between the retina and the visual cortex, in “Mathematics and Computer Science in Biology and Medicine”, Medical Research Council, London.Google Scholar
  12. Wolin, B.R., 1948, Difference in manner of pecking a key between pigeons reinforced with food and water, Note No. 4, Conference on the Experimental Analysis of Behaviour, 1948, Reprinted in “Contemporary Research in Operant Behavior”, A.C. Catania, ed., Scott, Foresman, New York.Google Scholar
  13. Yazulla, S., 1974, Intraretinal differentiation in the synaptic organization of the inner plexiform layer of the pigeon retina. J. Comp. Neurol., 153:309–324.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • Melvyn A. Goodale
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of Western OntarioLondonCanada

Personalised recommendations