Advertisement

Trans-Species and Trans-Tissue Extrapolation of Carcinogenicity Assays

  • David B. Clayson
Part of the Basic Life Sciences book series

Abstract

From earliest times, mankind has endowed animals with specific human attributes. Language reflects many of these attributes in phrases such as “wise as an owl,” “cunning as a fox,” or “assinine.” Soothsayers have used the detailed morphological examination of outbred animals to predict man’s fate in the future. It is relevant to our present society that none of these attributions were scientific absolutes; they could be manipulated to suit the current political exigencies. Our current mysticism dictates that we regard all agents that induce cancer in animals as having the same effect in man. Although some evidence for this theory exists, and it represents a cautious view, it is again by no means a scientific absolute.

Keywords

Carcinogenic Potency Liver Neoplasia Outbred Animal Detailed Morphological Examination Hepatic Tumorigenesis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Miller, J.A. 1970. Chemical carcinogenesis - an overview. G.H.A. Clowes Memorial Lecture. Cancer Res. 30: 559–576.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Miller, E.C., J.A. Miller, and M. Enomoto. 1964. The comparative carcinogenicities of 2-acetylaminofluorene and its N-hydroxy metabolite in mice, hamsters, and guinea pigs. Cancer Res. 24: 2018–2031.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Takeishi, K., S.O. Kaneda, and T. Seno. 1979. Mutagenic activation of 2-acetylaminofluorene by guinea-pig liver homogenates: Essential involvement of cytochrome P-450 mixed-function oxidases. Mutat. Res. 62: 425–437.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Meselson, M., and K. Russell. 1977. Comparisons of carcinogenic and mutagenic potency. In: Origins of Human Cancer. Proceedings of the Cold Spring Harbor Conference. H. Hiatt, J.D. Watson, and J.A. Winsten, eds. pp. 1473–1481.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Berenblum, I., and P. Shubik. 1947. The role of croton oil applications, associated with a single painting of a carcinogen, in tumor induction of the mouse’s skin. Brit. J. Cancer 1: 379–383.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Berenblum, I., and P. Shubik. 1947. A new, quantitative approach to the study of the stages of chemical carcinogenesis in the mouse’s skin. Brit. J. Cancer 1: 384–386.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Berenblum, I., and P. Shubik. 1949. The persistence of latent tumour cells induced in the mouse’s skin by a single application of 9,10-dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene. Brit. J. Cancer 3: 384–386.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Peraino, C., R.J.M. Fry, and E. Staffeldt. 1971. Reduction and enhancement by phenobarbital of hepatocarcinogenesis induced in the rat by 2-acetylaminofluorene. Cancer Res. 31: 1506–1512.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Peraino, C., R.J.M. Fry, E. Staffeldt, and J.P. Christopher. 1975. Comparative enhancing effects of phenobarbital, amobarbital, hydantoin, and dichlorodiphenyltrichloromethane on 2-acetylaminofluorene-induced hepatic tumorigenesis in the rat. Cancer Res. 35: 2884–2890.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Peraino, C., R.J.M. Fry, E. Staffeldt, and W.E. Kisieleski. 1973. Effects of varying the exposure to phenobarbital on its enhancement of 2-acetylaminofluorene-induced hepatic tumorigenesis in the rat. Cancer Res. 33: 2701–2705.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Cohen, S.M., M. Arai, J.B. Jacobs, and G.H. Friedell. 1979. Promoting effect of saccharin and DL-tryptophan in urinary bladder carcinogenesis. Cancer Res. 39: 1207–1217.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Pour, P., R.G. Runge, D. Birt, R. Gingell, T. Lawson, D. Nagel, L. Wallcave, and S. Salmasi. 1980. Current knowledge of pancreatic carcinogenesis in the hamster and its relevance to the human disease. Cancer Res. 40: 3585–3590.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ames, B.N., W.E. Durston, E. Yamasaki, and F.D. Lee. 1973. Carcinogens are mutagens - a simple test system combining liver homogenates for activation and bacteria for detection. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 70: 2281–2285.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ames, B.N., F.D. Lee, and W.E. Durston. 1973. An improved bacterial test system for the detection and classification of mutagens and carcinogens. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 70: 782–786.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ames, B.N. 1977. Environmental chemicals causing cancer and genetic birth defects: Developing a strategy for minimizing human exposure. CA Policy Seminar. pp. 1–37.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Langenbach, R., H.J. Freed, and E. Huberman. 1978. Liver cell-mediated mutagenesis of mammalian cells by liver carcinogens. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 75: 2864–2867.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Langenbach, R., H.J. Freed, D. Raveh, and E. Huberman. 1978. Cell specificity in metabolic activation of aflatoxin 81 and benzo[a]pyrene to mutagens for mammalian cells. Nature 276: 277–279.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Langenbach, R., R. Gingell, C. Kuszynski, B. Walker, D. Nagel, and P. Pour. 1980. Mutagenic activities of oxidized derivatives of N-nitrosodipropylamine in the liver cell-mediated and Salmonella typhimurium assays. Cancer Res. 40: 3463–3467.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Berenblum, I., and V. Lonal. 1970. The leukemogenic action of phorbol. Cancer Res. 30: 2744–2478.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Rossi, L., M. Rayera, G. Repetti, and L. Santi. 1976. Longterm administration of DDT or phenobarbital-Na in Wistar rats. Int. J. Cancer 19: 19–185.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Clayson, D.B., and E.H. Cooper. 1970. Cancer of the urinary tract. Adv. Cancer Res. 13: 271–381.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Clayson, D.B. 1979. Bladder cancer in rats and mice: Possibility of artifacts. In: Aspects of Cancer Research, 1971–1978. Natl. Cancer Inst. Monographs 52: 519–524.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Miller, J.A., and E.C. Miller. 1953. The carcinogenic aminoazo dyes. Adv. Cancer Res. 1: 339–396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Staffa, J.A., and M.A. Mehlman, eds. 1979. Innovations in cancer risk assessment (ED01 study). Pathotox Publishers: Park Forest South, IL. pp. 1–246.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • David B. Clayson
    • 1
  1. 1.Eppley Institute for Research in Cancer and Allied DiseasesUniversity of Nebraska Medical CenterOmahaUSA

Personalised recommendations