Advertisement

Hyperthermia pp 123-144 | Cite as

Oxygen Effects in Radiobiology

  • C. J. Koch
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 157)

Abstract

In the field of Radiobiology, (a good recent text is “Radiobiology for the Radiobiologist”; Hall, 1978) the ‘Oxygen Effect’ is understood to mean the increased sensitivity of cells to damage fron ionizing radiation as the concentration of oxygen increases from 0 to about 20,000 ppm*. Above 20,000–50,000 ppm the radiation sensitivity remains about the same (see Ling et al, 1981 for one of the most accurate assessments). But oxygen affects many aspects of cell biology and (bio) chemistry and several of these are important in radiobiology. The purpose of this short review is to describe several effects of oxygen pertinent to radiobiology and to indicate problem areas where the interaction of the Radiation Research Society and International Society for Oxygen Transport to Tissue might be most beneficial. The reference list is by no means comprehensive, but representative articles are listed where appropriate.

Keywords

Oxygen Tension Hyperbaric Oxygen Hypoxic Cell Oxygen Effect Aerobic Cell 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Adams, G. E. Chemical radiosensitization of hypoxic cells. Brit. Med. Bull., 29: 48–53, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Barendsen, G. W., Roelse, H., Hermens, A. F., Madhuizen, H. T., van Peperyul, H. A., and Rutgers, D. H. Clonogenic capacity of proliferating and nonproliferating cells of a transplantable rat rhabdomyosarcoma in relation to its radiosensitivity. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 51: 1521–1526, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bicher, H. I., Hetzel, F. W., Sandhu, T. S., Frinak, S., Vaupel, P., O’Hara, M. D. and O’Brien, T. Effects of Hyperthermia on normal and tumor microenvironment. Radiology 137, 523–530, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Born, R., Hug, O. and Trott, K. R. The effect of prolonged hypoxia on growth and viability of Chinese hamster cells. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Physics 1: 687–697, 1976.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Brown, J. M., Cytotoxic effects of the hypoxic cell radio-sensitizer Ro-07-0582 to tumor cells in vivo. Radiat. Res. 72: 469–486, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bush, R. S., Jenkin, R. D. T., Allt, W. E. C., Beale, F. A., Bean, H., Demko, A. J. and Pringle, J. F. Definitive evidence for hypoxic cells influencing cure in cancer therapy. Brit. J. Cancer, 37: Suppl. iii, 302–306, 1978.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cater, D. B. Oxygen tension in neoplastic tissues. Tumori, 50: 435–444, 1964.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cater, D. B., and Silver, I. A. Quantitative measurements of oxygen tension in normal tissues and in the tumors of patients before and after radiotherapy. Acta Radio., 53: 233–256, 1960.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Chapman, J. D., and Gillespie, C. J. Radiation induced events and their timescale in mammalian cells. In “Advances in Radiation Biology” Academic Press (In Press).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Chapman, J. D., Franko, A. J. and Sharplin, J. A marker for hypoxic cells in tumors with potential clincial applicability. Br. J. Cancer 43: 546–550, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Chapman, J. D., Franko, A. J. and Koch, C. J. The fraction of hypoxic clonogenic cells in tumor populations. In “Proceedings of 2nd Rome International Symposium — Biological Bases and Clincical Implications of Tumor Radio-resistance (Eds. C. Nervi, G. Arcangeli, and F. Mauro) (In Press).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Franko, A. J. and Sutherland, R. M. The rate of death of hypoxic cells in multi cell spheroids. Radit. Res. 76: 561–572, 1978.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Froese, G. The respiration of ascites tumor cells at low oxygen concentrations. Biochem. Biophys. Acta. 57: 509–519, 1962.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gordon, G. B., Barcza, M. A., and Bush, M. E. Lipid accumulation in hypoxic tissue culture cells. Am. J. Pathology 88: 663–678, 1977.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gray, L. H., Conger, A. D., Ebert, M., Hornsey, S. and Scott, O. C. A., Concentration of oxygen dissolved in tissues at time of irradiation as a factor in radiotherapy. Brit. J. Radiol., 26: 638–648, 1953.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hall, E. J. Radiobiology for the RAdiobiologist (2nd ed) Harper and Row Maryland, 1978.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Henk, J. M., and Smith, C. W. Radiotherapy and hyperbaric oxygen in head and neck cancer: Interim report of second clinical trial. Lancet, 2: 104, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hermens, A. F. and Barendsen, G. W., The proliferative status and clonogenic capacity of tumor cells in a transplantable rhabdomyosarcoma of the rat before and after irradiation with 800 rad x-rays. Cell Tissue Kinet., 11: 83–100, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Holthusen, H. Bertrage zur biologie der Strahlenwirkung. Pfluger’s Archiv für die Gesante Physiologie 187: 1–24, 1921.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kallman, R. F., Repopulation and reoxygenation as factors contributing to the effectiveness of fractionated radiotherapy. Front. Radiat. Ther. Oncol., 3: 96–108, 1968.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Koch, C. J. Measurement of very low oxygen tensions in liquids: Does the extrapolation number for mammalian cells decrease after x-irradiation under anoxic conditions. In: Cell survival after low doses of radiation, Proc. 6th Gray Conf., Sept.’ 74, Ed. T. Alper, Institute of Physics and John Wiley and Sons. 167-171, 1975.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Koch, C. J. The effect of oxygen on the repair of radiation damage by cells and Tissues. In: Advances in Radiation Biology 8: 273–315, 1979, (J. T. Lett and H. Alder, eds) Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Koch, C. J. and Biaglow, J. E. Toxicity, Radiation Sensitivity modification and metabolic effects of dehydroascorbate and ascorbate in mammalian cells. J. Cell. Phys. 94: 299–306, 1978.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Koch, C. J., and Biaglow, J. E. Respiration of mammalian cells at low concentrations of oxygen: 1. Effect of hypoxic-cell radiosensitizing drugs. Br. J. Cancer 37: Suppl. III, 163–167, 1978.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Koch, C. J. and Painter, R. B., The effect of extreme hypoxia on the repair of DNA Single-Strand-Breaks in mammalian cells. Radiat. Res. 64: 256–269, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Koch, C. J., Kruuv, J. and Frey, H. E. The effect of hypoxia on the generation time of mammalian cells. Radiat. Res. 53: 43–480, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Koch, C. J., Menes, J. J. and Harris, J. W. The effect of extreme hypoxia and glucose on the repair of potentially lethal and sublethal radiation damage by mammalian cells. Radiat. Res. 70: 542, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Koch, C. J., Kruuv, J., Frey, H. E. and Snyder, Ra. A. Plateau phase in growth induced by hypoxia. Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 23: 67–74, 1973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ling, C. C., Michaels, H. B., Gerweck, L. E., Epp, E. R. and Peterson, E. C. Oxygen Sensitization of Mammalian Cells under different irradiation conditions. Radiat. Res. 86: 325–340, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Littbrand, B. Survival characteristics of mammalian cell lines after single or multiple exposures to Roentgen radiation lander oxic or anoxic conditions. Acta Radiologica. Ther. Phys. Biol. 9: 257–281, 1970.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Moulder, J. E., and Rockwell, S. C., Survey of published data on the hypoxic fractions of solid rodent tumors. Radiat. Res., 83, 376, 1980.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Mueller-Klieser, W. F. and Sutherland, R. M. Oxygen tensions in multicell spheroids of two cell lines at different stages of growth. Submitted 1981.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Song, C. W., Clement, J. J. and Levitt, S. H. Preferential cytotoxicity of 5-thio-D-glucose against Hypoxic tumor cells. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 57: 603, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Stanners, C. P., Wightman, T. M. and Harkins, J. L. Effect of extreme amino acid starvation on the protein synthetic machinery of CHO cells. J. Cellular Physiology 95: 125–138, 1978.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Stoker, M. G. P., Role of diffusion boundary layer in contact inhibition of growth. Nature 246: 200–203, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Sutherland, R. M. Selective chemotherapy of noncycling cells in an in vitro tumor model. Cancer Res. 34: 3501–3503, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Sutherland, R. M. and Durand, R. E. Radiation Response of multicell spheroids — an in vitro tumor model. Curr. Top. Radiat. Res. Q. 11: 87–139, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Tannock, I. F. The relation between cell proliferatin and the vascular system in a transplanted mouse mammary tumor. Brit. J. Cancer, 22: 258–273, 1968.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Taylor, Y. C. and Rauth, A. M. Oxygen tension, cellular respiration and redox states as variable influencing the cytotoxicity of the radiosensitizer misonidazole. Radiat. Res. In Press, 1981.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Thomlinson, R. H. and Gray, L. H. The histological structure of some human lung cancers and the possible implications for radiotherapy. Br. J. Cancer 9: 539–549, 1955.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Urtasun, R. C., Band, P., Chapman, J. D., Feldstein, M. L., Mielke, B., and Fryer, C. Radiation and high-dose metronidazole in supratentorial glioblastomas. New Eng. J. Med., 294: 1364–1367, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Urtasun, R. C., Chapman, J. D., Feldstein, M. L. Band, R. P., Rabin, H. E., Wilson, A. F., Marynowski, B., Starreveld, A., and Shmitka, T., Peripheral neuropathy related to misonidazole: Incidence and Pathology. Br. J. Cancer 37 (Suppl III) 271–275, 1978.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Vail, J. M. and Glinos, A. D. Density dependent regulation of growth in L-cell suspension cultures V. Adaptive and nonadaptive respiratory decline. Cell. Physiology 83: 425–436, 1974.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Van den Brenk, H. A. Hyperbaric oxygen in radiation therapy. An investigation of dose-effect relationships. Am. J. Roentgen. 102, 8, 1968PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Whalen, W. J., Nair, P., and Granfield, R. A. Measurements of oxygen tension in tissues with a micro oxygen electrode. Microvasc. Res. 5: 254, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Withers, H. R. The 4 R’s of Radiotherapy In: Advances in Radiation Biology 5: 241–271, 1975 (J. Lett and H. Adler, eds.) Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. J. Koch
    • 1
  1. 1.Radiobiology, Cross Cancer InstituteEdmontonCanada

Personalised recommendations