Developmental Aspects of the Hepatic Circulation

  • Ian M. Taylor
Part of the Hepatology book series (H, volume 5)


The human embryo at the beginning of Horizon XI (13 somites, 24 days) has a midline tubular heart consisting of the paired primordia of the sinus venosus and a single atrium, ventricle and truncus (1). In the 16 somite embryo, the paired primordia fuse and a thickened portion of the endodermal lining of the foregut is then found to be in contact with the ventral and caudal walls of the midline sinus venosus (Fig 1). This thickened endodermal plate will shortly develop into the hepatic diverticulum.


Portal Vein Hepatic Artery Hepatic Vein Inferior Vena Umbilical Vein 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    STREETERGL: Developmental horizons in human embryos. Description of Age Group XI, 13 to 20 somites, and Age Group XII, 21–29 Somites.Cont Embryo Carnegie Inst (Wash)30: 211,1942.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    SEVERNCB: A morphological study of the development of the human liver. II. Establishment of liver parenchyma, extrahepatic ducts and associated venous channels.Am J Anat 133: 85–93, 1972.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    MINOTCS: On a hitherto unrecognized form of blood circulation without capillaries in the organs of vertebrata.Proc Boston Soc Nat Hist 29: 185–215, 1900.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    LIPPW: Die fruhe Strukturentwicklung des Leberparechyms beim Menschen.Z mikr anat Forsch 59: 161–186, 1952.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    ELIASH: Origin and early development of the liver in various vertebrates.Acta Hepatol 3: 1–56, 1955.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    DICKSONAD: Development of the ductus venosus in man and the goat.J Anat 91: 358–368, 1957.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    WENDELINH: Microangiography of the liver. An experimental study of sheep from the prenatal to the full grown period.Acta Paediatr Scand Suppl 233: 3–58, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    HUNTINGTONGS,MCCLURECFW: The development of the veins in the domestic cat (Felis domestica).Anat Rec 20: 1–30, 1920.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    BARRYA: The development of hepatic vascular structures.Ann NY Acad Sci 111: 105–108, 1963.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    MALLFP: A study of the structural unit of the liver.Am J Anat 5: 227–308, 1906.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    HADCHOUELM,HUGONRN,GAUTIERM: Reduced ratio of portal tracts to paucity of intrahepatic bile ducts.Arch Pathol Lab Med 102: 402, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    RAPPAPORTAM,BOROWYZJ,LOUGHEEDWM,LOTTOWN: Subdivision of hexagonal liver lobules into a structural and functional unit; role in hepatic physiology and pathology.Anat Rec 119: 11–33, 1954.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    VSEVOLODOVGF: Characteristics of the blood supply to the liver in the human fetus.Arkh Anat Gistol Embriol 55: 34–40, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    GRUENWALDP: Degenerative changes in the right half of the liver resulting from intra-uterine anoxia.Am J Clin Path 19: 801–813, 1949.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    EMERYJL: Degenerative changes in the left lobe of the liver in the newborn.Arch Pis Child 27:558–561, 1952.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    WITZLEBENC: Liver. InPathology of infancy and childhood. JM Kissane (ed). The CV Mosby Company, St. Louis, 1975. pp 267–308.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    BARROND: The “sphincter” of the ductus venosus.Anat Rec82; 398, 1942.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    CHACKOAW,REYNOLDSSRM: Embryonic development in the human of the sphincter of the ductus venosus.Anat Rec 115: 151–174, 1953.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    MONTAGNANICA: Intrahepatic vascular pattern in the newborn infant.Ann NY Acad Sci 111: 121–135, 1963.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    LINDJ: Changes in the liver circulation at birth.Ann NY Acad Sci 111: 110–120, 1963.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    OBELW: The umbilical vein in different periods of life in man.Folia Morphol (Warsz) 35: 173–179, 1976.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    MAROISD, VANHEERDENJA,CARPENTERHA,SHEEDYPF: Congenital absence of the portal vein.Mayo Clin Proc 54: 55–59, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    MARKSC: Developmental basis of the portal venous system.Am J Surg 117: 671–681, 1969.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    SNAVELYJG,BRECKELLES: Fatal haemorrhage from esophageal varices; due to malformations and congenital stenoses in portal venous system.Am J Med 16: 459–464, 1954.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    JOHNSONAO,OBISESANAO,WILLIAMSAO: Extrahepatic portal hypertension due to congenital obstruction of the portal vein and associated gross hepatic lobulation.Clin Ped18: 619–621, 1979.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    BEGGSAS: Anomalous persistence in embryos of parts of peri-intestinal rings formed by vitelline veins.Am J Anat 13: 103–110, 1912.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    MAKEYDA,BOWENJC: Preduodenal portal vein: its surgical significance.Surgery 84: 689–690, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    SIMONDSJP: Chronic occlusion of the portal vein.Arch Surg 33: 397–424, 1936.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    BEITZKEH: Über einen Fall von kavernöser Umwadlung der Pfortader.Charit é -Ann 34: 466–477, 1910.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    FLEISCHHAUERH: Über den chronischen Pfortaderverschluss.Virchows Arch path Anat 286: 747–765, 1932.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    LEGERL,COLINA,SORSC,LEMAIGREG: Les cavernomes de la veine porte: étude anatomique, physio-patho-génique.J Chlr 84: 145–172, 1962.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    WILSONKW,ROBINSONDC,HACKINGPM: Portal hypertension in childhood.Brit J Surg 56: 13–22, 1969.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    ROSCHJ,DOTTERCT: Extrahepatic portal obstruction in childhood and its angiographic diagnosis.Am J Roentgenol 112: 143–149, 1971.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    MEREDITHHC,VUJICI,SCHABELSI,O’BRIENPH: Obstructive jaundice caused by cavernous transformation of the portal vein.Br J Radio 51: 1011–1012, 1978.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    HELLWEGG: Congenital absence of intrahepatic portal venous system simulating Eck fistula; report of a case with necropsy findings.Arch Path 57: 425–430, 1954.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    MCINDOEAH: Vascular lesions of portal cirrhosis.Arch Path Lab Med 5: 23–42, 1928.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    TANDLERJ: Ueber die Varietäten der Arteria Coeliaca und deren Entwickelung.Anat Hefte Wiesb 25: 473–500, 1904.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    MICHELSNA: Blood supply and anatomy of the upper abdominal organs. Lippincott and Company, Philadelphia, 1955.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    GUPTASC,GUPTACS,GUPTASB: Intrahepatic supply patterns in cases of double hepatic arteries -a study by corrosion casts.Anat Anz 146: 166–170, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    NAHUMH,LEVESQUEM: Arteriography in hepatic trauma.Radiology 109: 557–563, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    KONSTAMMA,NOVELLINERA,ATHANASOULISCA: Aberrant hepatic artery: A potential cause for error in the angiographic diagnosis of traumatic liver hematoma.Gastrointest Radiol 4: 43–45, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    MICHELSNA: Collateral arterial pathways to the liver after ligation of the hepatic artery and removal of the celiac axis.Cancer 6: 708–724, 1953.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    MICHELSNA: The hepatic, cystic and retroduodenal arteries and their relations to the biliary ducts with samples of the entire celiacal blood supply. Ann Surg 133: 503–524, 1951.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ian M. Taylor
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Anatomy, Faculty of MedicineUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada

Personalised recommendations