Production of Essential Oil from Callus Cultures of Ocimum Basilicum L.
Biological role of monoterpene glycosides and its role in production and accumulation of allylphenols and phenyl propanoid compounds have been discussed by Skoop and Horster (1) for the first time in lamiaceae species Thymus vulgaris L. Preliminary phytochemical investigations of essential oil from undifferentiated tissue culture of Matricaria chamolia L. had shown no similarity, neither to the oil of in vitro differentiated leaves, nor to the oil of the flower of intact plant (2). Reinhard and co-workers (3) have investigated production of essential oil and coumarins by tissue cultures of Ruta graveolens L. They found that when cultures were well illuminated, the essential oil is produced and deposited in excretory cavities while in dark cultures, essential oil is produced too, however, in ordinary cells. Nagel and Reinhard (4) have reported that root tissue cultures of Ruta graveolens L. however maintained their chemical differentiation in all conditions. Whether cultivated in light or dark they produced an oil that resembles that of the roots of the whole plant. But in stem tissue cultures of Ruta graveolens L. the synthesis and composition of volatile oil depends on light intensity and its wave length and further more on the kind of oil secretion in oil cells or secretory passages.
KeywordsSuspension Culture Callus Culture Fresh Weight Basis Ocimum BASILICUM Ruta Graveolens
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