The Use of Chloroplast Proteins in Crop Improvement
Detailed knowledge of the structure and function of the proteins involved in photosynthetic reactions can provide information to what extent these proteins can be modified in the course of crop improvement. This information also determines the usefulness of a given protein to serve as marker in cell cultures and to provide a basis for in vitro selection procedures. Our main interest has been directed towards an analysis of the proteins localized in the thylakoid membranes of the chloroplasts. The conversion of solar energy into chemical energy takes place in these thylakoid membranes and the organization of these thylakoids must thus allow so diversified processes as absorption of photons, charge separation, oxygen evolution and electron transport through the two photosystems resulting in the formation of the energy rich components ATP and NADPH. Using the electrophoretic properties of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase as phenotypic markers of the nuclear and chloroplast genomes, five somatic hybrids of potato and tomato obtained by protoplast fusion have been identified.
KeywordsThylakoid Membrane Somatic Hybrid Crop Improvement Chloroplast Protein Barley Thylakoid
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