The Production and Utilization of Microspore-Derived Haploids in Brassica Crops

  • W. A. Keller
  • K. C. Armstrong
  • A. I. de la Roche
Part of the Basic Life Sciences book series (BLSC, volume 22)


The large scale availability of haploids could offer plant breeders specific advantages for developing new crop cultivars (1). Although haploids may be obtained through a number of techniques, a great deal of attention is being given to anther culture as a universal method of haploid production. Under appropriate conditions, the microspores within the anthers of some species can be induced to undergo embryogenesis resulting in the development of differentiated embryos which resemble zygotic seed embryos and from which plants may be regenerated. Haploids have been obtained from anther cultures in a number of crop species (2), but in many instances their yield and reliability of production have not been satisfactory to permit application to breeding programs.


Erucic Acid Anther Culture Donor Plant Microspore Embryogenesis Erucic Acid Content 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    J.G.T. Hermsen and M.S. Ramanna, Haploidy and plant breeding, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London B 292:499–507 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    I.K. Vasil, Androgenetic haploids, Int. Rev. Cytol. Suppl. 11A:195–223 (1980).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    W.A. Keller, T. Rajhathy and J. Lacapra, In vitro production of plants from pollen in Brassica campestris, Can. J. Genet. Cytol. 17:655–666 (1975).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    W.A. Keller and K.C. Armstrong, High frequency production of microspore-derived plants from Brassica napus anther cultures, Z. Pflanzenzuchtg. 80:100–108 (1978).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    G. Wenzel, F. Hoffmann and E. Thomas, Anther culture as a breeding tool in rape. I. Ploidy level and phenotype of androgenetic plants, Z. Pflanzenzuchtg. 78:149–155 (1977).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    M. Renard et F. Dosba, Etude de l’haploidie chez le Colza (Brassica napus L. var. oleifera Metzger), Ann. Amelior. Plantes 30:191–209 (1980).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    R. Lichter, Anther culture of Brassica napus in a liquid culture medium, Z. Pflanzenphysiol. 103:299–337 (1981).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    W.A. Keller and K.C. Armstrong, Stimulation of embryogenesis and haploid production in Brassica campestris anther cultures by elevated temperature treatments, Theor. Appl. Genet. 55:65–67 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    W.A. Keller and K.C. Armstrong, Embryogenesis and plant regeneration in Brassica napus anther cultures, Can. J. Bot. 55:1383–1388 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    N. Sunderland, Anther and pollen culture 1974–1979, in: “The Plant Genome,” D.R. Davies and D.A. Hopwood, eds., The John Innes Charity, Norwich (1980).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    C. Nitsch, La culture de pollen isolé sur milieu synthétique, C R Acad. Sci. Paris 278:1031–1034 (1974).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    N. Sunderland and M. Roberts, New approach to pollen culture, Nature 270:236–238 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Z.H. Xu, B. Huang and N. Sunderland, Culture of barley anthers in conditioned media, J. Exp. Bot. 32:767–778 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    J.M. Dunwell, Comparative study of environmental and developmental factors which influence embryo induction and growth in cultured anthers of Nicotiana tabacum, Env. Exp. Bot. 16:109–118 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    N. Sunderland, Strategies in the improvement of yields in anther culture, in: “Proc. of Symposium on Plant Tissue Culture,” Science Press, Peking (1978).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    B. Foroughi-Wehr and G. Mix, In vitro response of Hordeum vulgare L. anthers cultured from plants grown under different environments, Env. Exp. Bot. 19:303–309 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    W.A. Keller and G.R. Stringam, Production and utillization of microspore-derived haploid plants, in: “Frontiers of Plant Tissue Culture 1978,” T.A. Thorpe, eds., The International Association for Plant Tissue Culture, Calgary (1978).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    W.A. Keller and K.C. Armstrong, Production of anther-derived haploid plants in autotetraploid marrowstem kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala), Can. J. Genet. Cytol. 23:250–269 (1981).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    S.C. Maheshwari, A. K. Tyagi, K. Malhotra, Induction of haploidy from pollen grains in angiosperms — the current status, Theor. Appl. Genet. 58:193–206 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    G. Wenzel, Recent progress in microspore culture of crop plants, in: “The Plant Genome,” D.R. Davies and D.A. Hopwood eds., The John Innes Charity, Norwich (1980).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    M.J. Kasperbauer and G.B. Collins, Reconstitution of diploids from leaf tissue of anther-derived haploids in tobacco, Crop Sci. 12:98–101 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    G. Melchers, Haploid higher plants for plant breeding, Z. Pflanzenzuchtg. 67:19–32 (1972).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    T. Rajhathy, Haploid flax revisited, Z. Pflanzenzuchtg. 76:1–10 (1976).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    G.R. Stringam, An assesment of the anther culture technique for plant improvement in Brassica napus L., in: “The Plant Genome,” D.R. Davies and D.A. Hopwood, eds., The John Innes Charity, Norwich (1980).Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    K.F. Thompson, Superior performance of two homozygous diploid lines from naturally occurring polyhaploids in oilseed rape (Brassica napus), Euphytica 28:127–135 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    A.I. de la Roche and W.A. Keller, The morphogenetic control of erucic acid synthesis in Brassica campestris, Z. Pflanzenzuchtg. 78:319–326 (1977).Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    R.K. Downey and B.L. Harvey, Methods of breeding for oil quality in rape, Can. J. Plant Sci. 43:271–275 (1963).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. A. Keller
    • 1
  • K. C. Armstrong
    • 1
  • A. I. de la Roche
    • 1
  1. 1.Ottawa Research StationAgriculture CanadaOttawaCanada

Personalised recommendations