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Ceramides and Cerebrosides

  • Yasuo Kishimoto

Abstract

Ceramide* is the basic component of sphingolipids and a key intermediate of both synthesis and degradation of all sphingolipids.1 Major brain sphingolipids are cerebrosides, sulfatides, sphingomyelins, and gangliosides. These are unique to and abundant in the nervous system. In addition, there is a small quantity of free ceramide in brain. As shown in Fig. 1, ceramide is a fatty acid amide of a sphingoid base. The major brain sphingoid base (over 80% of total) is sphingosine [(2S,3R,4E)-2-amino-4-octadecene4,3-diol, with a D-erythro configuration].2 Up to 15% of all sphingoid base in brain sphingolipids is sphinganine (dihydrosphingosine). Other minor sphingoid bases include icosasphin- gosine and hexadecasphingosine. 4-D-Hydroxysphinganine (phytosphingosine; the extra hydroxyl group has an R configuration), which is abundant in plant and yeast, is not found in the nervous system.

Keywords

Sphingoid Base Fatty Acid Moiety Galactose Oxidase Ceramide Moiety Nonhydroxy Fatty Acid 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yasuo Kishimoto
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.John F. Kennedy InstituteJohns Hopkins University School of MedicineBaltimoreUSA
  2. 2.Department of NeurologyJohns Hopkins University School of MedicineBaltimoreUSA

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