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Abstract

Gangliosides occur primarily in the vertebrate phylum and have been detected in virtually all vertebrate tissues subjected to careful analysis. They constitute part of the glycoconjugate network extending from the membrane and contribute in a crucial manner to the surface properties of cells. In most instances, they comprise only a small portion of the lipid content of the plasma membrane. An important exception, however, is the CNS neuronal membrane in which gangliosides constitute approximately 10% of total lipid and two-thirds of glycoconjugate sialic acid. Organs such as intestine,1 mammary gland,1 and thyroid2 have total sialic acid concentrations equal to or greater than that of brain, but in these and virtually every other extraneural tissue that has been studied, protein-bound sialic acid was found to predominate. Gangliosides of such tissues show characteristic patterns that differ from brain and usually from each other; additional variation is attributed to species and developmental state. Thyroid,3 erythrocytes,4 and intestinal mucosa5 are examples of tissues that show marked ganglioside pattern differences among species. On the other hand, the intestinal muscular layer showed only small differences.5 Brain displays significant variation when lower vertebrates are compared to higher,6 but among mammals, the concentrations and patterns of the major brain gangliosides are relatively invariant.3,7

Keywords

Sialic Acid Cholera Toxin Oligosaccharide Chain Synaptic Plasma Membrane Brain Ganglioside 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert W. Ledeen
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.The Saul R. Korey Department of NeurologyAlbert Einstein College of MedicineBronxUSA
  2. 2.Department of BiochemistryAlbert Einstein College of MedicineBronxUSA

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