Methionine Metabolism in the Brain

  • H. H. Tallan
  • G. E. Gaull
  • D. K. Rassin
  • J. A. Sturman

Abstract

Special interest in the role of sulfur amino acids in brain began with the observations that cystathionine was present in large concentrations in human brain1 but was absent from the brain of patients with homocystinuria caused by cystathionine β-synthase (E.C. 4.2.1.22) deficiency.2 The contrast between the amount of cystathionine in brain versus liver and our later observation of the low concentration of cystathionine in fetal human brain led to a more detailed analysis of the special adaptations of sulfur amino acid metabolism in brain. What follows is a review of the metabolism of methionine in the central nervous system as seen by a group of us who worked together on this problem for over a decade. The point of view is, broadly speaking, developmental and nutritional. Questions related to inborn errors of methionine metabolism will be discussed in a chapter in Volume 10. In the present chapter, we follow the pathway of sulfur metabolism only as far as cyst(e)ine. The synthesis and metabolism of taurine and of glutathione have been reviewed in Chapters 18 and 22 (this volume). Reference to earlier literature not cited here may be found in the comprehensive 1970 review by Gaitonde.3

Keywords

Glutathione Serine Histamine Hydrolase Dopa 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Tallan, H. H., Moore, S., and Stein, W. H., 1958, J. Biol. Chem. 230: 707–716.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Brenton, D. P., Cusworth, D. C., and Gaull, G. E., 1965, Pediatrics 35: 50–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Gaitonde, M. K., 1970, Handbook of Neurochemistry, Volume 3 (A. Lajtha, ed.), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 225–287.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Sturman, J. A., and Rivlin, R. S., 1975, Biology of Brain Dysfunction, Volume 3 (G. E. Gaull, ed.), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 425–475.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Sershen, H., and Lajtha, A., 1979, J. Neurochem. 32: 719–726.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Zeisel, S. H., and Wurtman, R. J., 1979, Transmethylation (E. Usdin, R. T. Borchardt, and C. R. Creveling, eds.), Elsevier/North Holland, New York, pp. 59–68.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Gaull, G. E., Tallan, H.H., Lajtha, A., and Rassin, D. K., 1975, Biology of Brain Dysfunction, Volume 3 (G. E. Gaull, ed.), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 47–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Shaw, R. K., and Heine, J. D., 1965, J. Neurochem. 12: 151–155.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Perry, T. L., Sanders, H. D., Hansen, S., Lesk, D., Kloster, M., and Gravlin, L., 1972, J. Neurochem. 19: 2651–2656.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Perry, T. L., Berry, K., Hansen, S., Diamond, S., andMok, C., 1971, J. Neurochem. 18: 513–519.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Rubin, R. A., Ordonez, L. A., and Wurtman, R. J., 1974, J. Neurochem. 23: 227–231.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Burnet, F. R., 1979, J. Neurochem. 33: 603–605.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Daniel, R. G., and Waisman, H. A., 1969, J. Neurochem. 16: 787–795.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Liu, Y. P., Ambani, L. M., and Van Woert, M. H., 1972, J. Neurochem. 19: 2237–2239.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ordonez, L. A., and Wurtman, R. J., 1973, Biochem. Pharmacol. 22: 134–137.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ordonez, L. A., and Wurtman, R. J., 1974, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 160: 372–376.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gaitonde, M. K., and Richter, D., 1956, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. [Biol.] 145: 83–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Mitchell, A. D., and Benevenga, N. J., 1978, J. Nutr. 108: 67–78.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Eloranta, T. O., 1977, Biochem. J. 166: 521–529.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Schatz, R. A., and Sellinger, O. Z., 1975, J. Neurochem. 24: 63–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Baldessarini, R. J., and Kopin, I. J., 1966, J. Neurochem. 13: 769–777.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hoffman, D. R., Cornatzer, W. E., and Duerre, J. A., 1979, Can. J. Biochem. 57: 56–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Zappia, V., Carteni-Farina, M., and Porchelli, M., 1979, Transmethylation (E. Usdin, R. T. Borchardt, and C. R. Creveling, eds.), Elsevier/North Holland, New York, pp. 95–104.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Schatz, R. A., Wilens, T. E., and Sellinger, O. Z., 1981, J. Neurochem. 36: 1739–1748.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Taylor, K. M., and Randall, P. K., 1975, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 194: 303–310.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Yu, P. H., 1978, Anal. Biochem. 86: 498–504.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Wurtman, R. J., Rose, C. M., Matthysse, S., Stephenson, J., and Baldessarini, R., 1970, Science 169: 395–397.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Baldessarini, R. J., 1966, Biochem. Pharmacol. 15: 741–748.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Carl, G. F., Benesh, F. C., and Hudson, J. L., 1978, Biol. Psychiatry 13: 661–669.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Lo, C.-M., Kwok, M.-L., and Wurtman, R. J., 1976, Neuropharmacology 15: 395–402.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Lombardini, J. B., and Talalay, P., 1973, Mol. Pharmacol. 9: 542–560.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Lombardini, J. B., and Talalay, P., 1971, Adv. Enzyme Regul. 9: 349–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Volpe, J. J., and Laster, L., 1970, J. Neurochem. 17: 413–424.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Pegg, A. E., and Hibasami, H., 1979, Transmethylation (E. Usdin, R. T. Borchardt, and C. R. Creveling, eds.), Elsevier/North-Holland, New York, pp. 105–116.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Sturman, J. A., and Gaull, G. E., 1978, Advances in Poly amine Research, Volume 2 (R. A. Campbell, D. R. Morris, D. Bartos, G. D. Daves, Jr., and F. Bartos, eds.), Raven Press, New York, pp. 213–240.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Mudd, S. H., 1962, J. Biol. Chem. 237:PC1372–PC1375.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Lombardini, J. B., Chou, T.-C., and Talalay, P., 1973, Biochem. J. 135: 43–57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Chou, T.-C., and Taialay, P., 1972, Biochemistry 11: 1065–1073.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Hibasami, H., Tanaka, M., Nagai, J., Ikeda, T., and Pegg, A. E., 1980, FEBS Lett. 110: 323–326.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Kutzbach, C., and Stokstad, E. L. R., 1967, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 139: 217–220.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Kutzbach, C., and Stokstad, E. L. R., 1971, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 250: 459–477.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Turner, A. J., 1979, Transmethylation (E. Usdin, R. T. Borchardt, and C. R. Creveling, eds.), Elsevier/North-Holland, New York, pp. 69–76.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Taylor, R. T., and Weissbach, H., 1969, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 129: 728–744.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Taylor, R. T., and Weissbach, H., 1969, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 129: 745–766.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Finkelstein, J. D., Kyle, W. E., Martin, J. J., and Pick, A.-M., 1975, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 66: 81–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Zappia, V., Zydek-Cwick, C. R., and Schlenk, F., 1969, J. Biol. Chem. 244: 4499–4509.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Fonlupt, P., Rey, C., and Pacheco, H., 1981, J. Neurochem. 36: 165–170.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Borchardt, R. T., 1977, The Biochemistry of Adenosylmethionine (F. Salvatore, E. Borek, V. Zappia, H. G. Williams-Ashman, and F. Schlenk, eds.), Columbia University Press, New York, pp. 151–171.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Finkelstein, J. D., Kyle, W. E., and Harris, B. J., 1974, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 165: 774–779.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Burke, G. T., Mangum, J. H., and Brodie, J. D., 1971, Biochemistry 10: 3079–3085.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Tada, K., Yoshida, T., Hirono, H., and Arakawa, T., 1967, Tohoku J. Exp. Med. 92: 325–332.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Tada, K., Yoshida, Y., and Arakawa, T., 1970, Tohoku J. Exp. Med. 101: 223–226.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Rassin, D. K., Longhi, R. C., and Gaull, G. E., 1977, J. Pediatr. 91: 574–577.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Kanwar, Y. S., Manaligod, J. R., and Wong, P. W. K., 1976, Pediatr. Res. 10: 598–609.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Gerritsen, T., and Waisman, H. A., 1964, Science 145: 588.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Wong, P. W. K., Justice, P., Hruby, M., Weiss, E. B., and Diamond, E., 1977, Pediatrics 59: 749–756.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Kang, S.-S., Wong, P. W. K., and Becker, N., 1979, Pediatr. Res. 13: 1141–1143.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Brenton, D. P., Cusworth, D. C., and Gaull, G. E., 1965, J. Pediatr. 67: 58–68.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Gupta, V. J., and Wilcken, D. E. L., 1978, Eur. J. Clin. Invest. 8: 205–207.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Wilcken, D. E. L., and Gupta, V. J., 1979, Clin. Sci. 57: 211–215.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Bremer, H. J., Duran, M., Kamerling, J. P., Przyrembel, H., and Wadman, S. K., 1981, Disturbances of Amino Acid Metabolism: Clinical Chemistry and Diagnosis, Urban & Schwarzenberg, Baltimore, Munich, p. 52.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Malloy, M. H., Rassin, D. K., and Gaull, G. E., 1981, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 34: 2619–2621.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Brown, F. C., and Gordon, P. H., 1971, Can. J. Biochem. 49: 484–491.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Shimizu, H., Kakimoto, Y., and Sano, I., 1966, Neurochem. 13: 65–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Gjessing, L. R., and Torvik, A., 1966, Scand. J. Clin. Lab. Invest. 18: 565.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    DeFeudis, F. V., Delgado, J. M. R., and Roth, R. H., 1970, Brain Res. 18: 15–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Sturman, J. A., Rassin, D. K., and Gaull, G. E., 1970, J. Neurochem. 17: 1117–1119.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Sturman, J. A., Gaull, G. E., and Niemann, W. H., 1976, J. Neurochem. 26: 457–463.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Volpe, J. J., and Laster, L., 1970, J. Neurochem. 17: 425–437.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Lefauconnier, J.-M., Portemer, C., and Chatagner, F., 1978, Neurochem. Res. 3: 345–356.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Hudson, D. B., Vernadakis, A., and Timiras, P. S., 1970, Brain Res. 23: 213–222.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Hope, D. B., 1964, J. Neurochem. 11: 327–337.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Heinonen, K., 1975, Acta Endocrinol. (Kbh.) 80: 487–500.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Perry, T. L., Hansen, S., Berry, K., Mok, C., and Lesk, D., 1971, J. Neurochem. 18: 521–528.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Perry, T. L., Hansen, S., and Gandham, S. S., 1981, J. Neurochem. 36: 406–412.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Sturman, J. A., Cohen, P. A., and Gaull, G. E., 1969, Biochem. Med. 3: 244–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Kurtz, D. J., Levy, H., and Kanfer, J. N., 1972, J. Nutr. 102: 291–298.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Brown, F. C., and DeFoor, M., 1974, Biochem. Pharmacol. 23: 1135–1137.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Wong, P. W. K., and Fresco, R., 1972, Pediatr. Res. 6: 172–181.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Sturman, J. A., Schneidman, K., and Gaull, G. E., 1971, Biochem. Med. 5: 404–411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Perry, T. L., Hansen, S., Schier, G. M., and Halpern, B., 1977, J. Neurochem. 29: 791–795.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Brown, F. C., and Gordon, P. H., 1971, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 230: 434–445.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Mudd, S. H., Finkelstein, J. D., Irreverre, F., and Laster, L., 1965, J. Biol. Chem. 240: 4382–4392.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Sturman, J. A., Rassin, D. K., and Gaull, G. E., 1970, Int. J. Biochem. 1: 251–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Wade, L. A., and Brady, H. M., 1981, J. Neurochem. 37: 730–734.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Hwang, S. M., Weiss, S., and Segal, S., 1980, J. Neurochem. 35: 417–424.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Malloy, M. H., Rassin, D. K., and Gaull, G. E., 1981, Anal. Biochem. 113: 407–415.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Guchhait, R. B., and Grau, J. E., Jr., 1978, J. Neurochem. 31: 921–925.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Finkelstein, J. D., 1967, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 122: 583–590.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Griffiths, R., and Tudball, N., 1976, Life Sci. 19: 1217–1224.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Hiemke, C., and Ghraf, R., 1981, J. Neurochem. 37: 613–618.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Raina, A., Eloranta, T., and Kajander, O., 1976, Biochem. Soc. Trans. 4: 968–971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Chase, H. P., Volpe, J. J., and Laster, L., 1968, J. Clin. Invest. 47: 2099–2108.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Okada, G., Teraoka, H., and Tsukada, K., 1981, Biochemistry 20: 934–940.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Diez Altares, M. C., and Sellinger, O. Z., 1976, Enzyme 21: 53–65.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Schatz, R. A., Vunnam, C. R., and Sellinger, O. Z., 1979, Transmethylation (E. Usdin, R. T. Borchardt, and C. R. Creveling, eds.), Elsevier/North-Holland, New York, pp. 143–153.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Walker, R. D., and Duerre, J. A., 1975, Can. J. Biochem. 53: 312–319.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Finkelstein, J. D., and Harris, B., 1973, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 159: 160–165.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Broch, O. J., and Ueland, P. M., 1980, J. Neurochem. 35: 484–488.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Schatz, R. A., Vunnam, C. R., and Sellinger, O. Z., 1977, Life Sci. 20: 375–383.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Pegg, A. E., and Williams-Ashman, H. G., 1969, J. Biol. Chem. 244: 682–693.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Schmidt, G. L., and Cantoni, G. L., 1973, J. Neurochem. 20: 1373–1385.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Russell, D. H., and Lombardini, J. B., 1971, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 240: 273–286.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Shaskan, E. G., Haraszti, J. H., and Snyder, S. H., 1973, J. Neurochem. 20: 1443–1452.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Sturman, J. A., and Gaull, G. E., 1975, J. Neurochem. 25: 267–272.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Sturman, J. A., and Gaull, G. E., 1974, Pediatr. Res. 8: 231–237.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Russell, D. H., and Meier, H., 1975, J. Neurobiol. 6: 267–275.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Kohl, R. L., and Quay, W. B., 1979, J. Neurosci. Res. 4: 189–196.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Kashiwamata, S., 1971, Brain Res. 30: 185–192.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Gaull, G. E., Rassin, D. K., and Sturman, J. A., 1969, Neuropaediatrie 1: 199–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Heinonen, K., 1973, Biochem. J. 136: 1011–1015.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Gaull, G. E., von Berg, W., Ráihá, N. C. R., and Sturman, J. A., 1973, Pediatr. Res. 7: 527–533.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Finkelstein, J. D., Kyle, W. E., and Harris, B. J., 1971, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 146: 84–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Burton, E. G., and Sallach, H. J., 1975, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 166: 483–494.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Ordóñez, L. A., and Wurtman, R. J., 1973, J. Neurochem. 21: 1447–1455.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Finkelstein, J. D., Martin, J. J., Kyle, W. E., and Harris, B. J., 1978, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 191: 153–160.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Ordóñez, L. A., and Villarroel H., O. A., 1976, J. Neurochem. 27: 305–307.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Turner, A. J., Pearson, A. G. M., and Mason, R. J., 1979, Biochemical and Pharmacological Roles of Adenosylmethionine and the Central Nervous System (V. Zappia, ed.), Pergamon Press, New York, pp. 51–69.Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Deacon, R., Lumb, M., Perry, J., Chanarin, I., Minty, B., Halsey, M., and Nunn, J., 1980, Eur. J. Biochem. 104: 419–422.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Suleiman, S. A., and Spector, R., 1980, J. Neurochem. 35: 1250–1252.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Sturman, J. A., Gaull, G. E., and Niemann, W. H., 1976, J. Neurochem. 27: 425–431.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Mangum, J. H., Steuart, B. W., and North, J. A., 1972, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 148: 63–69.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Coward, J. K., Chello, P. L., Cashmore, A. R., Parameswaran, K. N., DeAngelis, L. M., and Bertino, J. R., 1975, Biochemistry 14: 1548–1552.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Suleiman, S. A., and Spector, R., 1980, Life Sci. 27: 2427–2432.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Greco, C. M., Powell, H. C., Garrett, R. S., and Lampert, P. W., 1980, Neuropathol. Appl. Neurobiol. 6: 349–360.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Gaitonde, M. K., and Richter, D., 1957, Metabolism of the Nervous System (D. Richter, ed.), Pergamon Press, London, pp. 449–455.Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Peck, E. J., Jr., and Awapara, J., 1967, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 141: 499–506.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Spector, R., Coakley, G., and Blakely, R., 1980, J. Neurochem. 34: 132–137.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Sturman, J. A., Gaull, G., and Räihä, N. C. R., 1970, Science 169: 74–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Gaull, G., Sturman, J. A., and Räihä, N. C. R., 1972, Pediatr. Res. 6: 538–547.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Dobbing, J., and Sands, J., 1979, Early Hum. Dev. 3: 79–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Agrawal, H. C., Davis, J. M., and Himwich, W. A., 1966, J. Neurochem. 13: 607–615.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Volpe, J. J., and Laster, L., 1972, Biol. Neonate 20: 385–403.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Timiras, P. S., Hudson, D. B., and Oklund, S., 1973, Neurobiological Aspects of Maturation and Aging (D. H. Ford, ed.), Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 267–275.Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Seiler, N., Sarhan, S., and Röth-Schechter, B. F., 1981, Dev. Neurosci. 4: 181–187.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Sturman, J. A., and Gaull, G. E., 1976, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 428: 70–77.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Zlotkin, S. H., Bryan, M. H., and Anderson, G. H., 1981, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 34:914–923. 137a. Zlotkin, S. H., and Anderson, G. H., 1982, Pediatr. Res. 16: 65–68.Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Rigo, J., and Senterre, J., 1977, Biol. Neonate 32: 73–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Tate, S. S., Grau, E. M., and Meister, A., 1979, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 76: 2715–2719.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Malloy, M. H., Rassin, D. K., Heird, W. C., and Gaull, G. E., 1981, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 34: 1520–1525.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Gray, E. G., and Whittaker, V. P., 1962, J. Anat. 96: 79–88.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    DeRobertis, E., Pellegrino de Iraldi, A., Rodriguez de Lores Arnaiz, G., and Gomez, C. J., 1961, J. Biophys. Biochem. Cytol. 9: 229–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Whittaker, V. P., Michaelson, I. A., and Kirkland, R. J. A., 1964, Biochem. J. 90: 293–303.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Rassin, D. K., and Gaull, G. E., 1978, Amino Acids as Chemical Transmitters (F. Fonnum, ed.), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 571–597.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Shank, R. P., and Aprison, M. H., 1970, J. Neurochem. 17: 1461–1475.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Werman, R., Davidoff, R. A., and Aprison, M. H., 1966, Life Sci. 5: 1431–1440.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Johnston, G. A. R., 1968, J. Neurochem. 15: 1013–1017.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Rassin, D. K., 1975, Metabolic Compartmentation and Neurotransmission (S. Berl, D. D. Clarke, and D. Schneider, eds.), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 559–565.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Key, B. J., and White, R. P., 1970, Neuropharmacology 9: 349–357.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Olney, J. W., Ho, O. L., and Rhee, V., 1971, Exp. Brain Res. 14: 61–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Gaull, G. E., and Rassin, D. K., 1979, Neural Growth and Differentiation (E. Meisami and M. A. B. Brazier, eds.), Raven Press, New York, pp. 461–477.Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    Rassin, D. K., 1981, Amino Acid Neurotransmitters (F. V. DeFeudis and P. Mandel, eds.), Raven Press, New York, pp. 127–134.Google Scholar
  153. 153.
    Mangan, J. L., and Whittaker, V. P., 1966, Biochem. J. 98: 128–138.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Neal, M. J., and Iversen, L. L., 1969, J. Neurochem. 16: 1245–1252.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Bradford, H. F., 1970, Brain Res. 19: 239–247.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Rassin, D. K., 1972, J. Neurochem. 19: 139–148.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    DeBelleroche, J. S., and Bradford, H. F., 1973, J. Neurochem. 21: 441–451.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Rassin, D. K., Sturman, J. A., and Gaull, G. E., 1977, J. Neurochem. 28: 41–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Rassin, D. K., Sturman, J. A., Hayes, K. C., and Gaull, G. E., 1978, Neurochem. Res. 3: 401–410.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Tudball, N., and Beaumont, A., 1979, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 588: 285–293.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Balcar, V. J., and Johnston, G. A. R., 1972, J. Neurochem. 19: 2657–2666.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Balcar, V. J., and Johnston, G. A. R., 1972, J. Neurobiol. 3: 295–301.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Segal, S., and Hwang, S. M., 1979, J. Neurochem. 33: 697–704.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Hwang, S. M., and Segal, S., 1979, J. Neurochem. 33: 1303–1308.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Kashiwamata, S., 1971, FEBS Lett. 19: 69–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Agrawal, H. C., Davison, A. N., and Kaczmarek, L. K., 1971, Biochem. J. 122: 759–763.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Davies, L. P., and Johnston, G. A. R., 1973, Brain Res. 54: 149–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Daly, E. C., and Aprison, M. H., 1974, J. Neurochem. 22: 877–885.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Rassin, D. K., and Gaull, G. E., 1975, J. Neurochem. 24: 969–978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Salganicoff, L., and DeRobertis, E., 1965, J. Neurochem. 12: 287–309.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Broch, O. J., Jr., and Fonnum, F., 1972, J. Neurochem. 19: 2049–2055.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Aprison, M. H., and Daly, E. C., 1978, Adv. Neurochem. 3: 203–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Schrier, B. K., and Thompson, E. J., 1974, J. Biol. Chem. 249: 1769–1780.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Rassin, D. K., Sturman, J. A., and Gaull, G. E., 1981, J. Neurochem. 36: 1263–1271.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Misra, C. H., and Olney, J. W., 1975, Brain Res. 97: 117–126.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Misra, C. H., Mena, E. E., Rhee, V., and Olney, J. W., 1977, Fed. Proc. 36: 751.Google Scholar
  177. 177.
    Byrne, M. C., and Salganicoff, L., 1977, Fed. Proc. 36: 1007.Google Scholar
  178. 178.
    Pasantes-Morales, H., Loriette, C., and Chatagner, F., 1977, Neurochem. Res. 2: 671–680.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Snyder, S. H., and Taylor, K. M., 1972, Perspectives in Neuropharmacology (S. H. Snyder, ed.), Oxford University Press, New York, pp. 43–73.Google Scholar
  180. 180.
    Pasantes-Morales, H., Mapes, C., Tapia, R., and Mandel, P., 1976, Brain Res. 107: 579–589.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Macaione, S., Tucci, G., De Luca, G., and Giorgio, R. M., 1976, J. Neurochem. 27: 1411–1415.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Spears, R. M., and Martin, D. L., 1980, Soc. Neurosci. Abstr. 6: 443.Google Scholar
  183. 183.
    Rassin, D. K., Sturman, J. A., and Gaull, G. E., 1981, J. Neurochem. 37: 740–748.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Rassin, D. K., 1981, Taurine in Nutrition and Neurology (R. J. Huxtable and H. Pasantes- Morales, eds.), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 257–268.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. H. Tallan
    • 1
    • 2
  • G. E. Gaull
    • 1
    • 2
  • D. K. Rassin
    • 3
  • J. A. Sturman
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Human Development and NutritionNew York State Institute for Basic Research in Developmental DisabilitiesStaten IslandUSA
  2. 2.Division of Human Genetics, Department of PediatricsMount Sinai School of Medicine of the City University of New YorkNew YorkUSA
  3. 3.Division of Developmental Nutrition and Metabolism, Department of PediatricsUniversity of Texas Medical BranchGalvestonUSA
  4. 4.Developmental Neurochemistry Laboratory, Department of Pathological NeurobiologyNew York State Institute for Basic Research in Developmental DisabilitiesStaten IslandUSA

Personalised recommendations