Advertisement

Intermediary Metabolism of Carbohydrates and Other Fuels

  • Richard A. Hawkins
  • Anke M. Mans

Abstract

The central nervous system (CNS) is composed of many cell types, each with different functions and metabolic requirements, These are combined into a variety of structures which may be just as different metabolically as they are anatomically and functionally. Although considerable progress has been made in the separation and study of these different cell types (see Volume 1 of this Handbook), results from such studies may not necessarily reflect cerebral metabolism in vivo. It is, after all, the interaction of the various cell types that determines the unique character of cerebral function and metabolism. When j the cells are separated, this aspect is lost to a greater degree in brain than in other organs which do not rely as heavily on intercellular communication. In view of these considerations, the emphasis of this chapter is on studies conducted in vivo.

Keywords

Pentose Phosphate Pathway Pyruvate Kinase Ketone Body Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Glycolytic Pathway 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Norberg, K., and Siesjö, B. K., 1974, Acta Physiol. Scand. 91: 154–164.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Neely, J. R., Bowman, R. H., and Morgan, H. E., 1969, Am. J. Physiol. 216: 804–811.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ross, B. D., 1978, Clin. Sci. Mol. Med. 55: 513–521.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Krebs, H. A., 1970, Advances in Enzyme Regulation, Volume 8 (G. Weber, ed.), Pergamon Press, Oxford, pp. 335–353.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Cremer, J. E., and Heath, D. F., 1974, Biochem. J. 142: 527–544.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hernandez, M. J., Brennan, R. W., Vannucci, R. C., and Bowman, G. S., 1978, Am. J. Physiol. 234: R209 - R215.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Mink, J. W., Blumenschine, R. J., and Adams, D. B., 1981, Am. J. Physiol. 241: R203 - R212.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sokoloff, L., 1977, Nutrition and the Brain, Volume 1 ( R. J. Wurtman and J. J. Wurtman, Eds.), Raven Press, New York, pp. 87–139.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Crane, P. D., Braun, L. D., Cornford, E. M., Cremer, J. E., Glass, J. M., and Oldendorf, W. H., 1978, Stroke 9: 12–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Mata, M., Fink, D. J., Gainer, H., Smith, C. B., Davidsen, L., Savaki, H., Schwartz, W. J., and Sokoloff, L., 1980, J. Neurochem. 34: 213–215.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Whittam, R., and Blond, D. M., 1964, Biochem. J. 92: 147–158.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hawkins, R. A., and Biebuyck, J. F., 1979, Science 205: 325–327.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lewis, L. D., Ljunggren, B., Ratcheson, R. A., and Siesjö, B. K., 1974, J. Neurochem. 23: 673–679.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lewis, L. D., Ljunggren, B., Norberg, K., and Siesjö, B. K., 1974, J. Neurochem. 23: 659–671.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Pardridge, W. M., 1977, Nutrition and the Brain, Volume 1, (R. J. Wurtman and J. J. Wurtman, Eds.), Raven Press, New York, pp. 141–204.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Rapoport, S. I., 1976, Blood-Brain Barrier in Physiology and Medicine, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bradbury, M., 1979, The Concept of a Blood-Brain Barrier, John Wiley & Sons, New York.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Reese, T. S., and Karnovsky, M. J., 1967, J. Cell. Biol. 34: 207–217.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Brightman, M. W., and Reese, T. S., 1969, J. Cell. Biol. 40: 648–677.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Glees, P., 1972, Metabolic Compartmentation in the Brain (R. Baläzs and J. E. Cremer, Eds.), John Wiley & Sons, New York, pp. 209–234.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Oldendorf, W. H., Cornford, M. E., and Brown, W. J., 1977, Ann. Neurol. 1: 409–417.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Friede, R. L., 1970, Triangle 9: 165–173.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Wolff, J. R., 1970, Triangle 9: 153–164.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hertz, L., 1981, Glial and Neuronal Cell Biology (E. A. Vidrio and S. Federoff, Eds.), Alan R. Liss, New York, pp. 45–58.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Siesjö, B. K., 1978, Brain Energy Metabolism (B. K. Siesjö, ed.), John Wiley & Sons, New York, pp. 131–150.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Beri, S., and Clarke, D. D., 1975, Metabolic Compartmentation and Neurotransmission. Relation to Brain Structure and Function (S. Beri, D. D. Clarke, and D. Schneider, Eds.), Plenum Press, New York, pp. xiii–xvii.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    O’Neal, R. M., and Koeppe, R. E., 1966, J. Neurochem. 13: 835–847.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Cremer, J. E., Heath, D. F., Patel, A. J., Balazs, R., and Cavanagh, J. B., 1975, Metabolic Compartmentation and Neurotransmission. Relation to Brain Structure and Function (S. Beri, D. D. Clarke, and D. Schneider, Eds.), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 461–478.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Cremer, J. E., Teal, H. M., Heath, D. F., and Cavanagh, J. B., 1977, J. Neurochem. 28: 215–222.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Balazs, R., Patel, A. J., and Richter, D., 1972, Metabolic Compartmentation in the Brain (R. Balazs and J. E. Cremer, Eds.), John Wiley & Sons, New York, pp. 167–186.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Van den Berg, C. J., Matheson, D. F., Ronda, G., Reijnierse, G. L. A., Blockhuis, G. G. D., Kroon, M. C., Clarke, D. D., and Garfinkel, D., 1975, Metabolic Compartmentation and Neurotransmission. Relation to Brain Structure and Function (S. Beri, D. D. Clarke, and D. Schneider, Eds.), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 515–543.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Beri, S., 1972, Metabolic Compartmentation in the Brain (R. Balazs and J. E. Cremer, Eds.), John Wiley & Sons, New York, pp. 3–17.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Cooper, A. J. L., McDonald, J. M., Gelbard, A. S., Gledhill, R. F., and Duffy, T. E., 1979, J. Biol. Chem. 254: 4982–4992.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Martinez-Hernandez, A., Bell, K. P., and Norenberg, M. D., 1977, Science 195:1356- 1358.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Balazs, R., Machiyama, Y., and Patel, A. J., 1972, Metabolic Compartmentation in the Brain (R. Baläzs and J. E. Cremer, Eds.), John Wiley & Sons, New York, pp. 57–70.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Sokoloff, L., 1960, Handbook of Physiology-Neurophysiology, Volume 3, (J. Field, H. W. Magoun, and V. E. Hall, Eds.), American Physiological Society, Washington, pp. 1843–1864.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Sloviter, H. A., and Kamimoto, T., 1970, J. Neurochem. 17: 1109–1111.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Owen, O. E., Morgan, A. P., Kemp, H. G., Sullivan, J. M., Herrera, M. G., and Cahill, G. F., Jr., 1967, J. Clin. Invest. 46: 1589–1595.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Robinson, A. M., and Williamson, D. M., 1980, Physiol. Rev. 60: 143–187.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Hawkins, R. A., Williamson, D. H., and Krebs, H. A., 1971, Biochem. J. 122: 13–18.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Mans, A. M., Biebuyck, J. F., and Hawkins, R. A., 1981, J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 1 (Suppl.):90–91.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Moore, T. J., Lione, A. P., Sugden, M. C., and Regen, D. M., 1976, Am. J. Physiol. 230: 619–630.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Cahill, G. F., and Aoki, T. T., 1980, Cerebral Metabolism and Neural Function (J. V. Pas- sonneau, R. A. Hawkins, W. D. Lust, and F. A. Welsh, Eds.), Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, pp. 234–242.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Ide, T., Steinke, J., and Cahill, G. F., Jr., 1969, Am. J. Physiol. 217: 784–792.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Patel, M. S., and Owen, O. E., 1977, J. Neurochem. 28: 109–114.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Rolleston, F. S., and Newsholme, E. A., 1967, Biochem. J. 104: 524–533.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Ziven, J. A., and Snarr, J. F., 1972, J. Appi. Physiol. 32: 664–667.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Ruderman, N. B., Ross, P. S., Berger, M., and Goodman, M. N., 1974, Biochem. J. 135: 1–10.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    De Vivo, D. C., Leckie, M. P., Ferrendelli, J. S., and McDougal, D. B., Jr., 1978, Ann. Neurol. 3: 331–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Gottstein, U., Müller, W., Berghoff, W., Gärtner, H., and Held, K., 1971, Klin. Wochenschr. 49: 406–411.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Hawkins, R. A., and Biebuyck, J. F., 1980, Cerebral Metabolism and Neural Function (J. V. Passonneau, R. A. Hawkins, W. D. Lust, and F. A. Welsch, Eds.), Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, pp. 255–263.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Oldendorf, W. H., 1973, Am. J. Physiol. 224: 1450–1453.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Cremer, J. E., Braun, L. D., and Oldendorf, W. H., 1976, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 448:633–637.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Cremer, J. E., Cunningham, V. J., Pardridge, W. M., Braun, L. D., and Oldendorf, W. H., 1979, J. Neurochem. 33: 439–445.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Pollay, M., and Stevens, F. A., 1980, J. Neurosci. Res. 5: 163–172.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Gjedde, A., and Crone, C., 1975, Am. J. Physiol 229: 1165–1169.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Vannucci, R. C., Hellmann, J., Hernandez, M. J., and Vannucci, S. J., 1980, Cerebral Metabolism and Neural Function (J. V. Passonneau, R. A. Hawkins, W. D. Lust, and F. A. Welch, Eds.), Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, pp. 264–270.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Hernandez, M. J., Brennan, R. W., and Hawkins, R. A., 1980, Cerebral Metabolism and Neural Function (J. V. Passoneau, R. A. Hawkins, W. D. Lust, and F. A. Welsh, Eds.), Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, pp. 196–201.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Sloviter, H. A., Shimkin, P., and Suhara, K., 1966, Nature 210: 1334–1336.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Sloviter, H. A., and Suhara, K., 1967, J. Appl. Physiol. 23: 792–797.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Banos, G., Daniel, P. M., Moorhouse, S. R., and Pratt, O. E., 1973, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. [Bioli] 183: 59–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Felig, P., Wahren, J., and Ahlborg, G., 1973, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 142: 230–231.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Van den Berg, C. J., and Van den Velden, J., 1970, J. Neurochem. 17: 985–991.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Berl, S., and Frigyesi, T. L., 1968, J. Neurochem. 15: 965–970.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Roberts, S., and Morelos, B. S., 1965, J. Neurochem. 12: 373–387.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Vignais, P. M., Gallagher, C. H., and Zabin, I., 1958, J. Neurochem. 2: 283–287.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Beattie, D. S., and Basford, R. E., 1966, J. Biol. Chem. 241: 1412–1418.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Bremer, J., 1963, J. Biol. Chem. 238: 2774–2779.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Wiener, R., Hirsch, H. J., and Spitzer, J. J., 1971, Am. J. Physiol. 220: 1542–1546.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Pardridge, W. M., and Mietus, L. J., 1980, J. Neurochem. 34: 463–466.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Allweis, C., Landau, T., Abeles, M., and Magnes, J., 1966, J. Neurochem. 13: 795–804.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Spitzer, J. J., 1973, Physiologist 16: 55–68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Sarna, G. S., Bradbury, M. W. B., Cremer, J. E., Lai, J. C. K., and Teal, H. M., 1979, Brain Res. 160: 69–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Oldendorf, W. H., 1972, Eur. Neurol. 6: 49–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Kety, S. S., Woodford, R. B., Harmel, M. H., Freyhan, F. A., Appel, K. E., and Schmidt, C. F., 1948, Am. J. Psychiatry. 104: 765–770.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Geiger, A., Magnes, J., and Geiger, R. S., 1952, Nature 170: 754–755.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Pappenheimer, J. R., and Setchell, B. P., 1973, J. Physiol. (Lond.) 233: 529–551.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Agardh, C. D., Chapman, A. G., Nilsson, B., and Siesjö, B. K., 1981, J. Neurochem. 36: 490–500.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Knauff, H. G., Mark, D., and Mayer, G., 1961, Hoppe Seylers Z. Physiol. Chem. 326:227–234.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Hinzen, D. H., Becker, P., and Müller, U., 1970, Pfluegers Arch. 321: 1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Petersen, V. P., and Schou, M., 1955, Acta Physiol. Scand. 33: 309–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    MiUer, A. L., Hawkins, R. A., and Veech, R. L., 1975, J. Neurochem. 25: 553–558.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Veech, R. L., Lawson, J. W. R., Cornell, N. W., and Krebs, H. A., 1979, J. Biol. Chem. 254: 6538–6547.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Davis, E. J., and Lumeng, L., 1975, J. Biol. Chem. 250: 2275–2282.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Heidt, H. W., Klingenberg, M., and Milovancev, M., 1972, Eur. J. Biochem. 30: 434–440.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Jacobs, H., Heidt, H. W., and Klingenberg, M., 1964, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 16: 516–521.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Jacobus, W. E., and Lehninger, A. L., 1973, J. Biol. Chem. 248: 4803–4810.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Saks, V. A., Rosenshtraukh, L. V., Smirnov, V. N., and Chazov, E. I., 1978, Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 56: 691–706.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Bessman, S. P., and Geiger, P. J., 1981, Science 211: 448–452.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Wood, T., and Swanson, P. D., 1964, J. Neurochem. 11: 301–307.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Swanson, P. D., 1967, J. Neurochem. 14: 343–356.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 94.
    Phelps, M, E„ Kuhl, D. E., and Mazziotta, J. C., 1981, Science 211: 1445–1448.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 95.
    Newsholme, E. A., 1980, FEBS Lett. 117: K121 - K134.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 96.
    Newsholme, E. A., and Start, C., 1973, Regulation in Metabolism, John Wiley & Sons, New York.Google Scholar
  95. 97.
    Krebs, H. A., 1957, Endeavour 16: 125–132.Google Scholar
  96. 98.
    Lund-Andersen, H., 1979, Physiol. Rev. 59: 305–352.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 99.
    Lund-Andersen, H., 1980, Cerebral Metabolism and Neural Function (J. V. Passonneau, R. A. Hawkins, W. D. Lust, and F. A. Welsh, Eds.), Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, pp. 120–126.Google Scholar
  98. 100.
    Bachelard, H. S., 1975, Brain Work (D. H. Ingvar and N. A. Lassen, Eds.), Munskgaard, Copenhagen, pp. 126–141.Google Scholar
  99. 101.
    Bachelard, H. S., 1980, Cerebral Metabolism and Neural Function (J. V. Passonneau, R. A. Hawkins, W. D. Lust, and F. A. Welsh, Eds.), Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, pp. 106–119.Google Scholar
  100. 102.
    Crone, C., 1980, Microvasc. Res. 20: 133–149.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 103.
    Hawkins, R. A., Hass, W. K., and Ransohoff, J., 1979, Stroke 10: 690–703.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 104.
    Shimada, M., Kihara, T., Watanabe, M., Kurimoto, K., 1977, Neurochem. Res. 2: 595–603.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 105.
    Craigie, E. H., 1920, J. Comp. Neurol. 31: 429–464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 106.
    Sacks, W., 1969, Handbook of Neurochemistry, Volume 1 ( A. J. Lajtha, ed.), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 301–321.Google Scholar
  105. 107.
    Grossbard, L., and Schimke, R. T., 1966, J. Biol. Chem. 241: 3546–3560.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 108.
    Crane, R. K., and Sols, A., 1954, J. Biol. Chem. 210: 597–606.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 109.
    Weil-Malherbe, H., and Bone, A. D., 1951, Biochem. J. 49: 339–347.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 110.
    Ning, J., Purich, D. L., and Fromm, H. J., 1969, J. Biol. Chem. 244: 3840–3846.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 111.
    Casazza, J. P., and Fromm, H. J., 1976, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 177: 480–487.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 112.
    Kosow, D. P., and Rose, I. A., 1970, J. Biol. Chem. 245: 198–204.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 113.
    Uyeda, K., and Racker, E., 1965, J. Biol. Chem. 240: 4682–4688.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 114.
    Rose, I. A., and Warms, J. V. B., 1967, J. Biol. Chem. 242: 1635–1645.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 115.
    Ellison, W. R., Lueck, J. D., and Fromm, H. J., 1975, J. Biol. Chem. 250: 1864–1871.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 116.
    Purich, D. L., and Fromm, H. J., 1971, J. Biol. Chem. 246: 3456–3463.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 117.
    Wilson, J. E., 1980, Curr. Top. Cell Regul. 16: 1–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 118.
    Knull, H. R., Taylor, W. F., and Wells, W. W., 1974, J. Biol. Chem. 249: 6930–6935.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 119.
    Thompson, M. F., and Bachelard, H. S., 1970, Biochem. J. 118: 25–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 120.
    Hernandez, A., and Crane, R. K., 1966, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 113: 223–229.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 121.
    Wilson, J. E., 1978, Arch. Biochim. Biophys. 185: 88–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 122.
    Wilson, J. E., 1968, J. Biol. Chem. 243: 3640–3647.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 123.
    Gots, R. E., Gorin, F. A., and Bessman, S. P., 1972, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 49: 1249–1255.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 124.
    Feigner, P. L., 1973, Fed. Proc. 32: 488.Google Scholar
  123. 125.
    Kropp, E. S., and Wilson, J. E., 1970, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 38: 74–79.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 126.
    Bielicki, L., Krieglstein, J., and Wever, K., 1980, Arzneim. Forsch. 30: 594–597.Google Scholar
  125. 127.
    Lusk, J. A., Manthorpe, C. M., Kao-Jen, J., and Wilson, J. E., 1980, J. Neurochem. 34: 1412–1420.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 128.
    Uyeda, K., 1979, Adv. Enzymol. 48: 193–244.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 129.
    Uyeda, K., and Luby, L. J., 1974, J. Biol. Chem. 249: 4562–4570.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 130.
    Goldhammer, A. R., and Paradies, H. H., 1979, Curr. Top. Cell. Regul. 15: 109–141.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 131.
    Toraheim, K., 1980, J. Theor. Biol. 85: 199–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 132.
    Kagimoto, T., and Uyeda, K., 1980, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 203: 792–799.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 133.
    Claus, T. H., Schlumpf, J. R., El-Maghrabi, M. R., Pilkis, J., and Pilkis, S. J., 1980, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 77: 6501–6505.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 134.
    Nieto, A., and Castaño, J. G., 1980, Biochem. J. 186: 953–957.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 135.
    Furuya, E., and Uyeda, K., 1980, J. Biol. Chem. 255: 11656–11659.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 136.
    Furuya, E., and Uyeda, K., 1980, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 77: 5861–5864.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 137.
    Kagimoto, T., and Uyeda, K., 1979, J. Biol. Chem. 254: 5584–5587.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 138.
    Castaño, J. G., Nieto, A., and Felia, J. E., 1979, J. Biol. Chem. 254: 5576–5579.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 139.
    Pilkis, S. J., Schlumpf, J., Pilkis, J., and Claus, T. H., 1979, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 88: 960–967.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 140.
    Van Schaftingen, E., Hue, L., and Hers, H.-G., 1980, Biochem. J. 192: 887–895.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 141.
    Van Schaftingen, E., Hue, L., and Hers, H.-G., 1980, Biochem. J. 192: 897–901.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 142.
    Van Schaftingen, E., and Hers, H.-G., 1980, Biochem, Biophys. Res. Commun. 96: 1524–1531.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 143.
    Pilkis, S. J., El-Maghrabi, M. R., Pilkis, J., Glaus, T. H., and Cumming, D. A., 1981, J. Biol. Chem. 256: 3171–3174.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 144.
    Kayne, F. J., 1973, The Enzymes, Volume VIII (P. D. Boyer, ed.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 353–382.Google Scholar
  143. 145.
    Nicholas, P. C., and Bachelard, H. S., 1974, Biochem. J. 141: 165–171.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 146.
    Tsao, M. U., 1979, Moll. Cell. Biochem. 24: 75–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 147.
    Weber, G., 1969, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 63: 1365–1369.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 148.
    Schwark, W. S., Singhal, R. L., and Ling, G. M„ 1971, J. Neurochem. 18: 123–134.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 149.
    Miller, A. L., Hawkins, R. A., and Veech, R. L., 1973, Science 173: 904–906.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 150.
    Wapnir, R. A., Moak, S. A., and Lifshitz, F., 1977, Nature 265: 647–648.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 151.
    Akeson, A. L., Berry, H. K., Brunner, R. L., and Vorhees, C. V., 1979, J. Neurochem. 32: 233–235.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 152.
    Kemp, R. G., 1973, J. Biol. Chem. 248: 3963–3967.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 153.
    Tornheim, K., and Lowenstein, J. M., 1979, J. Biol. Chem. 254: 10586–10587.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 154.
    Fitch, C. D., Chevli, R., and Jellinek, M., 1979, J. Biol. Chem. 254: 11357–11359.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 155.
    Ishibashi, H., and Cottam, G. L., 1978, J. Biol. Chem. 253: 8767–8771.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 156.
    Ljungstrom, O., Hjelmquist, G., and Engstrom, L., 1974, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 358: 289–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 157.
    Ekman, P., Dahlqvist, U., Humble, E., and Engstrom, L., 1976, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 429: 374–382.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 158.
    Engstrom, L., 1978, Curr. Top. Cell Regul. 13: 29–51.Google Scholar
  157. 159.
    Jope, R., and Blass, J. P., 1975, Biochem. J. 150: 397–403.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 160.
    Booth, R. F. G., and Clark, J. B., 1978, J. Neurochem. 30: 1003–1008.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 161.
    Cremer, J. E., and Teal, H. M., 1974, FEBS Lett. 39: 17–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 162.
    Denton, R. M., Randle, P. J., Bridges, B. J., Cooper, R. H., Kerbey, A. L., Pask, H. T., Severson, D. L., Stansbie, D., and Whitehouse, S., 1975, Mol. Cell. Biochem. 9: 27–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 163.
    Hucho, F., 1975, Angew. Chem. [Engl.] 14: 591–601.Google Scholar
  162. 164.
    Linn, T. C., Pettit, F. H., Hucho, F., and Reed, L. J., 1969, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 62: 234–241.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 165.
    Linn, T. C., Pelley, J. W., Pettit, F. H., Hucho, F., Randall, D. D., and Reed, L. J., 1972, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 148: 327–342.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 166.
    Pratt, M. L., Roche, T. E., Dyer, D. W., and Cate, R. L., 1979, Biochem. Biophys. Res.. Commun. 91: 289–296.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 167.
    Reed, L. J., Linn, T. C., Pettit, F. H., Oliver, R. M., Hucho, F., Pelley, J. W., Randall, D. D., and Roche, T. E., 1972, Energy Metabolism and the Regulation of Metabolic Processes in Mitochondria (M. A. Mehlman and R. W. Hanson, Eds.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 253–270.Google Scholar
  166. 168.
    Siess, E., Wittmann, J., and Wieland, O., 1971, Hoppe Seylers Z. Physiol. Chem. 352: 447–452.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 169.
    Randle, P. J., Denton, R. M., Pask, H. T., and Severson, D. L., 1974, Biochem. Soc. Symp. 39: 75–88.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. 170.
    Severson, D. L., Denton, R. M., Pask, H. T., and Randle, P. J., 1974, Biochem. J. 140:225– 237.Google Scholar
  169. 171.
    Ngo, T. T., and Barbeau, A., 1978, J. Neurochem. 31: 69–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 172.
    Jope, R., and Blass, J. P., 1976, J. Neurochem. 26: 709–714.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 173.
    Land, J. M., Booth, R. F. G., Berger, R., and Clark, J. B., 1977, Biochem. J. 164: 339–348.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. 174.
    Sugden, P. H., and Newsholme, E. A., 1975, Biochem. J. 150: 105–111.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. 175.
    LaNoue, K., Nicklas, W. J., and Williamson, J. R., 1970, J. Biol. Chem. 245: 102–111.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. 176.
    LaNoue, K. F., Walajtys, E. I., and Williamson, J. R., 1973, J. Biol. Chem. 248: 7171–7183.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. 177.
    Srere, P. A., Matsuoka, Y., and Mukheijee, A., 1973, J. Biol. Chem. 248: 8031–8035.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. 178.
    Smith, C. M., and Williamson, J. R., 1971, FEBS Lett. 18: 35–38.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. 179.
    Williamson, J. R., and Cooper, R. H., 1980, FEBS Lett. 117: K73–K85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. 180.
    Weitzman, P. D. J., and Danson, M. J., 1976, Curr. Top. Cell. Regul. 10: 161–204.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. 181.
    Williamson, J. R., Smith, C. M., LaNoue, K. F., and Bryla, J., 1972, Energy Metabolism and the Regulation of Metabolic Processes in Mitochondria (M. A. Mehlman and R. W. Hanson, Eds.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 185–210.Google Scholar
  180. 182.
    Stein, A. M., Stein, J. H., and Kirkman, S. K., 1967, Biochemistry 6: 1370–1379.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. 183.
    Plaut, G. W. E., 1970, Curr. Top. Cell. Regul. 2: 1–27.Google Scholar
  182. 184.
    Goldberg, N. D., Passonneau, J. V., and Lowry, O. H., 1966, J. Biol. Chem. 241: 3997–4003.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. 185.
    Chen, R. F., and Plaut, G. W. E., 1963, Biochemistry 2: 1023–1032.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. 186.
    Sanwal, B. D., and Stachow, C. S., 1965, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 96: 28–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. 187.
    Shen, W.-C., Mauck, L., and Colman, R. F., 1974, J. Biol. Chem. 249: 7942–7949.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. 188.
    Colman, R. F., 1975, Adv. Enzyme Regul. 13: 413–433.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. 189.
    Dalziel, K., 1980, FEBS Lett. 117: K45–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. 190.
    Willson, V. J. C., and Tipton, K. F., 1980, J. Neurochem. 34: 793–799.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. 191.
    Nicholls, D. G., and Garland, P. B., 1969, Biochem. J. 114: 215–225.Google Scholar
  190. 192.
    Tanaka, N., Koike, K., Hamada, M., Otsuka, K.-I., Suematsu, T., and Koike, M., 1972, J. Biol. Chem. 247: 4043–4049.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. 193.
    Koike, K., Hamada, M., Tanaka, N., Otsuka, K.-I., Ogasahara, K., and Koike, M., 1974, J. Biol. Chem. 249: 3836–3842.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. 194.
    McCormack, J. G., and Denton, R. M., 1981, Biochem. J. 196: 619–624.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. 195.
    Smith, C. M., Bryla, J., and Williamson, J. R., 1974, J. Biol. Chem. 249: 1497–1505.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. 196.
    Lowry, O. H., Passonneau, J. V., Hasselberger, F. X., and Schulz, D. W., 1964, J. Biol. Chem. 239: 18–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. 197.
    Chapman, A. G., Meldrum, B. S., and Siesjo, B. K., 1977, J. Neurochem. 28: 1025–1035.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. 198.
    Duffy, T. E., Howse, D. C., and Plum, F., 1975, J. Neurochem. 24: 925–934.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. 199.
    Pardridge, W. M., and Oldendorf, W. H., 1977, J. Neurochem. 28: 5–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. 200.
    Borgstrom, L., Chapman, A. G., and Siesjo, B. K., 1976, J. Neurochem. 27: 971–973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. 201.
    Siesjo, B. K., and Nilsson, L., 1971, Scan. J. Clin. Lab. Invest. 27: 83–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. 202.
    Krebs, H. A., 1972, Essays Biochem. 8: 1–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. 203.
    Cohen, L. H., and Noell, W. K., 1965, Biochemistry of the Retina (C. N. Graymore, ed.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 36–50.Google Scholar
  202. 204.
    Gottstein, U., 1975, Brain Work. The Coupling of Function, Metabolism and Blood Flow (D. H. Ingvar and N. A. Lassen, Eds.), Munksgaard, Copenhagen, pp. 144–148.Google Scholar
  203. 205.
    Gjedde, A., Hansen, A. J., and Siemkowicz, E., 1981, J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 1:172- 173.Google Scholar
  204. 206.
    Berl, S., Takagaki, G., Clark, D. D., and Waelsch, H., 1962, J. Biol. Chem. 237: 2570–2573.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. 207.
    Felicioli, R. A., Gabrielli, F., and Rossi, C. A., 1967, Life Sci. 6: 133–143.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. 208.
    Waelsch, H., Cheng, S.-C., Cote, L. J., and Naruse, H., 1965, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 54: 1249–1253.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. 209.
    Cheng, S.-C., 1971, Int. Rev. Neurobiol. 14: 125–157.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. 210.
    Hawkins, R. A., Miller, A. L., Nielsen, R. C., and Veech, R. L., 1973, Biochem. J. 134: 1001–1008.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. 211.
    Naruse, H., Cheng, S.-C., and Waelsch, H., 1966, Exp. Brain Res. 1: 291–298.Google Scholar
  210. 212.
    Salganicoff, L., and Koeppe, R. E., 1968, J. Biol. Chem. 243: 3416–3420.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. 213.
    Patel, M. S., 1974, J. Neurochem. 22: 717–724.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. 214.
    Cheng, S.-C., and Cheng, R. H. C., 1972, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 151: 501–511.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. 215.
    Patel, M. S., and Tilghman, S. M., 1973, Biochem. J. 132: 185–192.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. 216.
    Frenkel, R., 1972, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 152: 136–143.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. 217.
    D’Adamo, A. F., Jr., and D’Adamo, A. P., 1968, J. Neurochem. 15: 315–323.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. 218.
    Mahan, D. E., Mushahwar, I. K., and Koeppe, R. E., 1975, Biochem. J. 145: 25–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. 219.
    Frenkel, R., 1975, Curr. Top. Cell Regul. 9: 157–181.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. 220.
    Denton, R. M., and Halestrap, A. P., 1979, Essays Biochem. 15: 37–77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. 221.
    Nordlie, R. C., 1974, Curr. Top. Cell Regul. 8: 33–116.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. 222.
    Anchors, J. M., Haggerty, D. F., and Karnovsky, M. L., 1977, J. Biol. Chem. 252: 7035–7041.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. 223.
    Colilla, W., Jorgenson, R. A., and Nordlie, R. C., 1975, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 377:117- 225.Google Scholar
  222. 224.
    Nordlie, R. C., 1971, Enzymes 4: 534–610.Google Scholar
  223. 225.
    Tewari, H. B., and Bourne, G. H., 1963, J. Histochem. Cytochem. 11:121–122. VW,Google Scholar
  224. 226.
    Prasannan, K. G., and Subrahmanyam, K., 1968, Endocrinology 82: 1–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. 227.
    Rosen, S. I., 1970, Acta Histochem. (Jena) 36: 44–53.Google Scholar
  226. 228.
    Anchors, J. M., and Karnovsky, M. L., 1975, J. Biol. Chem. 250: 6408–6416PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. 229.
    Stephens, H. R., and Sandborn, E. B., 1976, Brain Res. 113: 127–146.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. 230.
    Rosen, S. I., 1974, Acta Histochem. (Jena) 50: 1–18.Google Scholar
  229. 231.
    Zakim, D., 1970, J. Biol. Chem. 245: 4953–4961.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. 232.
    Burchell, A., and Burchell, B., 1980, FEBS Lett. 118: 180–184.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. 233.
    Scrutton, M. C., and Utter, M. F., 1968, Annu. Rev. Biochem. 37: 249–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. 234.
    Phillips, M. E., and Coxon, R. V., 1975, Biochem. J. 146: 185–189.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. 235.
    Hevor, T., and Gayet, J., 1981, J. Neurochem. 36: 949–958.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. 236.
    Majumder, A. L., and Eisenberg, F., Jr., 1977, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 74: 3222–3225.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. 237.
    Pilkis, S. J., El-Maghrabi, M. R., Pilkis, J., and Claus, T., 1981, J. Biol. Chem. 256: 3619–3622.Google Scholar
  236. 238.
    Rious, J.-P., Claus, T. H., Flockhart, D. A., Corbin, J. D., and Pükis, S. J., 1977, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 74: 4615–4619.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. 239.
    Pilkis, S. J., El-Maghrabi, M. R., Coven, B., Claus, T. H., Tager, H. S., Steiner, D. F., Keim, P. S., and Heinrikson, R. L., 1980, J. Biol. Chem. 255: 2770–2775.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. 240.
    Mendicino, J., Leibach, F., and Reddy, S., 1978, Biochemistry 17: 4662–4669.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. 241.
    Proffitt, R. T., Sankaran, L., and Pogell, B. M., 1976, Biochemistry 15: 2918–2925.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. 242.
    Soling, H. D., Bernhard, G., Kuhn, A., and Lück, H.-J., 1977, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 182: 563–572.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. 243.
    Katz, J., and Rognstad, R., 1976, Curr. Top. Cell Regul. 10: 237–289.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. 244.
    Katz, J., and Rognstad, R., 1978, Trends Biochem. Sci. 3: 171–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. 245.
    Newsholme, E. A., and Crabtree, B., 1976, Biochem. Soc. Symp. 41: 61–109.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  244. 246.
    Hawkins, R. A., and Miller, A. L., 1978, Neuroscience 3: 251–258.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. 247.
    Huang, S. C., Phelps, M. E., Hoffman, E. J., Sideris, K., Selin, C. J., and Kühl, D. E., 1980, Am. J. Physiol. 238: E69–E82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  246. 248.
    Karnovsky, M. L., Burrows, B. L., and Zoccoli, M. A., 1980, Cerebral Metabolism and Neural Function (J. V. Passonneau, R. A. Hawkins, W. D. Lust, and F. A. Welsh, Eds.), Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, pp. 359–366.Google Scholar
  247. 249.
    Newsholme, E. A., and Gevers, W., 1967, Vitam. Horm. 25: 1–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  248. 250.
    Norenberg, M. D., and Martinez-Hernandez, A., 1979, Brain Res. 161: 303–310.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  249. 251.
    Davidson, N., 1976, Neurotransmitter Amino Acids, Academic Press, New York, pp. 57–111.Google Scholar
  250. 252.
    Berl, S., Clark, D. D., and Schneider, D. (Eds.), 1975, Metabolic Compartmentation and Neurotransmission, Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  251. 253.
    Roberts, E., 1974, Biochem. Pharmacol 23: 2637–2649.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  252. 254.
    Roberts, E., Chase, T. N., and Tower, D. B. (Eds.), 1976, GABA in Nervous System Function, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  253. 255.
    Baxter, C. F., 1970, Handbook of Neurochemistry, Volume 3 (A. Lajtha, ed.), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 289–356.Google Scholar
  254. 256.
    Iversen, L. L., Dick, F., Kelly, J. S., and Schon, F., 1975, Metabolic Compartmentation and Neurotransmission (S. Berl, D. D. Clarke, and D. Schneider, Eds.), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 65–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  255. 257.
    Sims, K. L., and Pitts, F. N„ 1970, J. Neurochem. 17: 1607–1612.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  256. 258.
    Hostetier, K. Y., Landau, B. R., White, R. J., Albin, M. S., and Yashon, D., 1970, J. Neurochem. 17: 33–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  257. 259.
    Gaitonde, M. K., and Arnfred, T., 1971, J. Neurochem. 18: 1971–1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  258. 260.
    Thoesen-Coleman, M. T., and Allen, N., 1978, J. Neurochem. 30: 83–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  259. 261.
    Maker, H. S., Clarke, D. D., and Lajtha, A. L., 1976, Basic Neurochemistry, 2nd ed. (G. J. Siegel, R. W. Albers, R. Katzman, B. W. Agranoff, Eds.), Little, Brown, Boston, pp. 279–307.Google Scholar
  260. 262.
    Mcllwain, H., and Bachelard, H. S., 1971, Biochemistry and the Central Nervous System, 4th ed., Churchill, London.Google Scholar
  261. 263.
    Krebs, H. A., and Eggleston, L. V., 1974, Adv. Enzyme Regul. 12: 421–434.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  262. 264.
    Siesjò, B. K., 1981, J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 1: 155–186.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  263. 265.
    Hotta, S. S., 1962, J. Neurochem. 9: 43–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  264. 266.
    Eisenberg, H. M., Suddith, R. L., and Crawford, J. S., 1980, Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 131: 57–68.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  265. 267.
    Goldstein, G. W., 1979, J. Physiol. (Lond.) 286: 185–195.Google Scholar
  266. 268.
    Craven, P. A., and Basford, R. E., 1974, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 354: 49–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  267. 269.
    Reese, T. S., and Brightman, M. W., 1968, Anat. Ree. 160: 414.Google Scholar
  268. 270.
    Lowry, O. H., and Passonneau, J. V., 1964, J. Biol. Chem. 239: 31–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  269. 271.
    Knull, H. R., 1978, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 522: 1–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  270. 272.
    Novello, F., and McLean, P., 1968, Biochem. J. Willi 5–791.Google Scholar
  271. 273.
    Soothill, P. W., Kouseibati, F., Watts, R. L., and Watts, D. C., 1981, J. Neurochem. 37: 506–510.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  272. 274.
    Watanabe, H., and Passonneau, J. V., 1973, J. Neurochem. 20: 1543–1554.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  273. 275.
    Wilson, J. E., and Feigner, P. L., 1977, Mol. Cell. Biochem. 18: 39–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  274. 276.
    Booth, R. F. G., Patel, T. B., and Clark, J. B., 1980, J. Neurochem. 34: 17–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  275. 277.
    Holowach, J., Kauffman, F., Ikossi, M. G., Thomas, C., and McDougal, D. B., Jr., 1968, J. Neurochem. 15: 621–631.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  276. 278.
    Lowry, O. H., Roberts, N. R., Wu, M. L., Hixon, W. S., and Crawford, E. J., 1954, J. Biol. Chem. 207: 19–37.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  277. 279.
    Balàzs, R., 1965, J. Neurochem. 12: 63–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  278. 280.
    MacDonnell, P. C., and Greengard, O., 1974, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 163: 644–655.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  279. 281.
    Passonneau, J. V., Lust, W. D., and Crites, S. K., 1977, Neurochem. Res. 2: 605–617.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  280. 282.
    Passonneau, J. V., Lowry, O. H., Schulz, D. W., and Brown, J. G., 1969, J. Biol. Chem. 244: 902–909.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  281. 283.
    Kauffman, F. C., Brown, J. G., Passonneau, J. V., and Lowry, O. H., 1969, J. Biol. Chem. 244: 3647–3653.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  282. 284.
    Veech, R. L., 1980, Cerebral Metabolism and Neural Function (J. V. Passonneau, R. A. Hawkins, W. D. Lust, and F. A. Welsh, Eds.), Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, pp. 34–41.Google Scholar
  283. 285.
    Bachelard, H. S., 1976, Handbook of Clinical Neurology. Metabolic and Deficiency Diseases of the Nervous System. Part I (P. J. Vinken and G. W. Bruyn, Eds.), American Elsevier, New York, pp. 1–26.Google Scholar
  284. 286.
    Krebs, H. A., and Veech, R. L., 1969, The Energy Level and Metabolic Control in Mitochondria (S. Papa, J. M. Tager, E. Quagliariello, and E. C. Slater, Eds.), Adriatica Editrice, Bari, pp. 329–382.Google Scholar
  285. 287.
    Lowry, O. H., Passonneau, J. V., Schulz, D. W., and Rock, M. K., 1961, J. Biol. Chem. 236: 2746–2755.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  286. 288.
    Burch, H. B., Bradley, M. E., and Lowry, O. H., 1967, J. Biol Chem. 242: 4546–4554.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  287. 289.
    Vannucci, S. J., and Vannucci, R. C., 1980, J. Neurochem. 34: 1100–1105.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  288. 290.
    Alderman, J. L., and Shellenberger, M. K., 1974, J. Neurochem. 22: 937–940.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  289. 291.
    Balàzs, R., 1970, Handbook of Neurochemistry, Volume 3 (A. Lajtha, Ed.), pp. 1–36.Google Scholar
  290. 292.
    Sellinger, O. Z., and DeBalbian-Verster, F., 1962, J. Biol. Chem. 237: 2836–2844.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • Richard A. Hawkins
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Anke M. Mans
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of AnesthesiaThe Pennsylvania State University College of MedicineHersheyUSA
  2. 2.Department of PhysiologyThe Pennsylvania State University College of MedicineHersheyUSA
  3. 3.The Milton S. Hershey Medical CenterHersheyUSA

Personalised recommendations