Protection against Gram-Negative Bacteremia with Antiserum to Endotoxins
Although the mechanisms of the toxic and immunologic properties of endotoxins have been extensively examined by many investigators, only a few have worked on the possible value of an antitoxin against endotoxins. There have been at least two deterrents to such research that might explain the lag in development of an antitoxin to these lipopolysaccharide (LPS) poisons of gram-negative bacteria. The first is the question of whether or not LPS causes, or contributes to, the toxic manifestations of gram-negative bacterial infections. Until the role of LPS in human infection appeared to be a reasonable possibility, there would be little justification for undertaking the task of developing an antitoxin against LPS for human use. The second deterrent is related to the apparent antigenic heterogeneity of the endotoxins in the many species and serotypes of pathogenic gram-negative bacteria. It would seem impractical, on first consideration, to prepare antisera against each of the different serotypes of O antigens presented by all these gram-negative bacteria.
KeywordsGamma Globulin Passive Immunization Core Oligosaccharide Shwartzman Reaction Renal Cortical Necrosis
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