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Enhancement of Antitumor Resistance by Mycobacterial Products and Endotoxin

  • Edgar Ribi
  • John L. Cantrell
  • Kuni Takayama
  • Ken-ichi Amano

Abstract

It has been more than 100 years since the suggestion was made that the control of cancer was mediated by immunologic methods. This hypothesis was based on the observation that tumors either partially or totally regressed in a few patients following an acute bacterial infection. In 1911, William Coley pioneered the study of mixed bacterial vaccines or their product known as “Coley’s toxin,” for treating cancers, and there is no doubt that these vaccines had some effect in many cases (Nauts et al., 1946). The effective ingredient appeared to be endotoxin, which caused hemorrhagic necrosis of the tumors. Thus, Gratia and Linz discovered in guinea pigs (1931) and Shwartzman and Michailovsky in mice (1932) that when animals with solid tumors are given single i.v. or i.p. inoculations with small doses of endotoxin, their tumors became hemorrhagic within 24 hr. This was originally done by analogy with the local Shwartzman reaction, with the idea that some hypothetical tumor virus might have prepared the site. It appeared that this type of tumor damage was mediated indirectly because little of the injected endotoxin would be likely to make contact with tumor cells, and would not exert any direct cytotoxicity in any case (Shapiro, 1940; Brailovsky et al., 1973).

Keywords

Endotoxic Shock Toxic Fraction Cell Wall Skeleton Microscopic Lymph Node Metastasis Systemic Tumor Immunity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • Edgar Ribi
    • 1
  • John L. Cantrell
    • 1
  • Kuni Takayama
    • 2
  • Ken-ichi Amano
    • 3
  1. 1.Ribi ImmunoChem Research, Inc.HamiltonUSA
  2. 2.William S. Middleton Memorial Veterans HospitalMadisonUSA
  3. 3.Department of BacteriologyHirosaki University School of MedicineHirosaki 036Japan

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