Immunomodulatory Effects of Endotoxin
Exposure of cells of the lymphoid system to endotoxin in conjunction with conventional antigens results in a dramatic modification of the specific immune response that would otherwise occur. Johnson et al. (1956) initially observed that endotoxin administered concomitantly with protein antigens resulted in markedly increased antibody titers. The effect could be obtained using endotoxin prepared from several species of gram-negative bacteria. The ability of endotoxin to thus act as a conventional adjuvant was found to depend on the time of administration relative to antigen, as demonstrated by Kind and Johnson (1959) and Franzi and McMaster (1968). They showed that enhanced antibody responses occurred only when endotoxin was administered at the same time or within a few days after antigen administration, but a depressed antibody response occurred if endotoxin preceded antigen. Thus, these early investigations demonstrated the dual nature of the effect of endotoxin on the immune response.
KeywordsAntibody Response Spleen Cell Immunomodulatory Effect Bacterial Lipopolysaccharide Enhance Antibody Response
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