Interleukin 1 (IL 1), previously known as lymphocyte-activating factor (LAF), is key mediator of macrophage function. Macrophages release IL 1 following stimulation with bacterial endotoxin (Gery and Waks-man, 1972), substances that possess adjuvant properties (Oppenheim et al., 1980), or phagocytic stimuli (Rosenwasser et al., 1979). IL 1 can completely replace macrophages in some in vitro immunological assay systems (Maizel et al., 1981) and greatly reduce the number of macrophages required in other systems (Rosenberg and Lipsky, 1981). IL 1 probably replaces the soluble activating factor released by macrophages but cannot replace the macrophage function of antigen or lectin presentation (Rosenberg and Lipsky, 1981). IL 1 may also regulate nonimmunological responses that involve macrophages. Specifically, IL 1 may be identical to the fever-producing substance endogenous pyrogen (Murphy et al., 1980; Rosenwasser et al., 1979), and appears to stimulate prostaglandin and collagenase release from synovial cells (Mizel et al., 1981) and to release acute-phase reactants (Selinger et al., 1980).
KeywordsThymidine Incorporation Macrophage Cell Line Normal Human Serum Muramyl Dipeptide Mouse Thymocyte
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