CNS Dopamine Receptors

  • Ian Creese
  • Mark W. Hamblin
  • Stuart E. Leff
  • David R. Sibley
Part of the Handbook of Psychopharmacology book series (HBKPS)


The past 20 years has seen our appreciation of the function of dopamine in the brain elevated from that of a precursor for other catecholamines, principally norepinephrine, to a neurotransmitter in its own right. The association of disturbances of dopaminergic neurotransmission with neurological and psychiatric disorders has further emphasized the crucial role of this neurotransmitter in normal brain functioning and stimulated much basic research into dopaminergic neurotransmission. Dopaminergic agonists with the ability to cross the blood-brain barrier now have a firmly established role in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease, and may be of value in the therapy of tardive dyskinesia. Dopaminergic antagonists have a longer history in the treatment of schizophrenia, Huntington’s disease, and Gilles de la Tourette’s syndrome. This pharmacological arsenal, available because of the pharmaceutical industries’ search for better therapeutic agents, also provides the major tools for experimental approaches. Both agonists and antagonists are available from diverse structural groups. Some exist as stereo or geometric isomers which differ markedly in their ability to interact with dopaminergic systems.


Dopamine Receptor Adenylate Cyclase Dopamine Agonist Guanine Nucleotide Adenylate Cyclase Activity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Aghajanian, G. K., and Bunney, B. S., 1973, Central Dopaminergic Neurons: neurophysiological identification and responses to drugs, in: Frontiers in Catecholamine Research ( S. H. Snyder and E. Usdin, eds.), pp. 643–648, Pergamon Press, New York.Google Scholar
  2. Aghajanian, G. K., and Bunney, B. S., 1977, Dopamine “Autoreceptors”: pharmacological characterization by microiontophoretic single cell recording studies, Naunyn-Schmiedeberg’s Arch. Pharmacol 297: 1–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ahn, H. M., Gardner, E., and Makman, M. H., 1979, Anterior Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase: stimulation by dopamine and other monoamines, Eur. J. Pharmacol. 53: 313–317.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Annunziato, L., Quattrone, A., Schettini, G., and Direnzo, G., 1980, Supersensitivity Of Pituitary Dopamine Receptors Involved In The Inhibition Of Prolactin Secretion, Adv. Biochem. Psychopharmacol. 24: 379–385.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Attie M. F., Brown, E. M., Gardner, D. G., Spiegel, A. M., and Aurbach, G. D., 1980, Characterization Of Dopamine-Responsive Adenylate Cyclase Of Bovine Parathyroid Cells and Its Relationship To Parathyroid Hormone Secretion, Endocrinology 107: 1776–1781.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bacopoulos, N. B., 1981, Acute Changes In The State Of Dopamine Receptors: in vitro monitoring with [3H]dopamine, Life Sci. 29: 2407–2414.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Baldessarini, R. J., and Tarsy, D., 1979, Relationship Of The Actions Of Neuroleptic Drugs To The Pathophysiology Of Tardive Dyskinesia, Int. Rev. Neurobiol. 21: 1–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Baldessarini, R. J., Kula, N. S., Arana, G. W., Neumeyer, J. L., and Law, S. J., 1980, Chloroethylnorapomorphine, A Proposed Long-Acting Dopamine Antagonist: interactions with dopamine receptors of mammalian forebrain in vitro, Eur. J. Pharmacol. 67: 105–110.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bannon, M. J., Bunney, E. B., Zigun, J. R., Skirboll, L. R., and Roth, R. H., 1980, Presynaptic Dopamine Receptors: insensitivity to kainic acid and the development supersensitivity following chronic haloperidol, Naunyn-Schmiedeberg’s Arch. Pharmacol 312: 161–165.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bannon, M. J., Grace, A. A., Bunney, B. S., and Roth, R. H., 19806, Evidence For An Irreversible Interaction Of Bromocryptine With Central Dopamine Receptors, Naunyn- Schmiedeberg’s Arch. Pharmacol. 312: 37 — 42.Google Scholar
  11. Baudry, M., Martres, M. P., and Schwartz, J. C., 1979, [3H]Domperidone: a selective ligand for dopamine receptors, Naunyn-Schmiedeberg’s Arch. Pharmacol. 308: 231–237.Google Scholar
  12. Beckstead, R. M., Domesick, V. B., and Nauta, W.J. H., 1979, Efferent Connections Of The Substantia Nigra and Ventral Tegmental Area In The Rat, Brain Res. 175: 191–217.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bell, C., Lang, W. J., and Laska, F., 1978, Dopamine-Containing Vasomotor Nerves In The Dog Kidney, J. Neurochem. 31: 77–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bennett, J. P., Jr., 1978, Methods In Binding Studies, In: Neurotransmitter Receptor Binding ( H. I. Yamamura, S. J. Enna, and M. J. Kuhar, eds.), pp. 57–90, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  15. Berger, B., Tassin, J. P., Blanc, G., Moyne, M. A., and Thierry, A. M., 1974, Histochemical Confirmation For Dopaminergic Innervation Of The Rat Cerebral Cortex After Destruction Of The Noradrenergic Ascending Pathways, Brain Res. 81: 332–337.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bjorklund, A., and Lindvall, O., 1975, Dopamine In Dendrites Of Substantia Nigra Neurons: suggestions for a role in dendritic terminals, Brain Res. 83: 531–537.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bjorklund, A., Lindvall, O., and Nobin, A., 1975, Evidence Of An Incerto-Hypothalamic Dopamine Neurone System In The Rat, Brain Res. 89: 29–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Blessing, W. W., and Chalmers, J. P., 1979, Direct Projection Of Catecholamine (Presumably Dopamine)-Containing Neurons From Hypothalamus To Spinal Cord, Neurosci. Lett. 11: 35 — 40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Boeynaems, J. M., and Dumont, J. E., 1977, The Two-Step Model Of Ligand -Receptor Interaction, Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 7: 33–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Boyan-Salyers, B. D., and Clement-Cormier, Y. C., 1980, Identification and Partial Purification Of A Hydrophobic Protein Component Associated With [3H]Spiroperidol- Binding Activity, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 617: 274–281.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Brown, E. M., Carrol, R. J., Aurbach, G. D., 1977, Dopaminergic Stimulation Of Cyclic Amp Accumulation and Parathyroid Hormone Release From Dispersed Bovine Parathyroid Cells, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. Usa 74: 4210–4213.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Brown, E. M., Attie, M. F., Reen, S., Gardner, D. G., Kebabian, J., and Aurbach, G. D., 1980, Characterization Of Dopaminergic Receptors In Dispersed Bovine Parathyroid Cells, Mol. Pharmacol. 18: 335–340.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Brown, J. H., and Makman, M. H., 1972, Stimulation By Dopamine Of Adenylate Cyclase In Retinal Homogenates and Of Adenosine 3’–5’-Cyclic Monophosphate Formation In Intact Retina, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. Usa 69: 539–543.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Bunney, B. S., and Aghajanian, G. K., 1973, Electrophysiological Effects Of Amphetamine On Dopaminergic Neurons, In: Frontiers in Catecholamine Research ( S. H. Snyder and E. Usdin, eds.), pp. 957 — 962, Pergamon Press, New York.Google Scholar
  25. Bunney, B. S., Walters, J. R., Roth, R. H., and Aghajanian, G. K., 1973A, Dopaminergic Neurons: effect of antipsychotic drugs and amphetamine on single cell activity, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 185: 560–571.Google Scholar
  26. Bunney, B. S., Aghajanian, G. F., and Roth, R. H., 19736, Comparison Of Effects Of L- Dopa, Amphetamine, and Apomorphine On Firing Rate Of Rat Dopaminergic Neurons, Nature New Biol. 245: 123–125.Google Scholar
  27. Burt, D. R., Enna, S. J., Creese, I., and Snyder, S. H., 1975, Dopamine Receptor Binding In The Corpus Striatum Of Mammalian Brain, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. Usa 72: 4655–4659.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Burt, D. R., Creese, I., and Snyder, S. H., 1976, Properties Of [3H]Haloperidol and [3H]- Dopamine Binding Associated With Dopamine Receptors In Calf Brain Membranes, Mol. Pharmacol. 12: 800–812.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Calabro, M. A., and Macleod, R. M., 1978, Binding Of Dopamine To Bovine Anterior Pituitary Gland Membranes, Neuroendocrinology 25: 32–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Caron, M. C., Beaulieu, M., Raymond, V., Gagne, B., Drouin, J., Lefkowitz, R. J., and Labrie, F., 1978, Dopaminergic Receptors In The Anterior Pituitary Gland , J. Biol. Chem. 253: 2244–2253.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Chang, R. S. L., and Snyder, S. H., 1980, Histamine Hi-Receptor Binding Sites In Guinea Pig Brain Membranes: regulation of agonist interactions by guanine nucleotides and cations, J. Neurochem. 34: 916–922.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Cheramy, A., Leviel, V., and Glowinski, J., 1981, Dendritic Release Of Dopamine In The Substantia Nigra, Nature (London) 289: 537–542.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Clement-Cormier, Y. C., and Kendrick, P. E., 1980, Solubilization and Characterization Of [3H]Spiroperidol Binding Sites From Subcellular Fractions Of The Calf Striatum, Biochem. Pharmacol. 29: 897–903.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Clement-Cormier, Y. C., Kebabian, J. W., Petzold, G. L., and Greengard, P., 1974, Dopamine-Sensitive Adenylate Cyclase In Mammalian Brain: a possible site of action of antipsychotic drugs, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 71: 1113–1117.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Clement-Cormier, Y. C., Parrish, R. A., Petzold, G. L., Kebabian, J. W., and Greengard, P., 1975, Characterization Of A Dopamine-Sensitive Adenylate Cyclase In The Rat Caudate Nucleus, J. Neurochem. 25: 143–149.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Clement-Cormier, Y. C., Heindel, J. J., and Robison, G. A., 1977, Adenylyl Cyclase From A Prolactin-Producing Tumour Cell: the effect of phenothiazines, Life Sci. 21: 1357–1364.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Clement-Cormier, Y. C., Meyerson, L. R., and Mcisaac, A., 1980, Solubilization Of Multiple Binding Sites For The Dopamine Receptor From Calf Striatal Membranes, Biochem. Pharmacol. 29: 2009–2016.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Commissiong, J. W., and Neff, N. H., 1979, Current Status Of Dopamine In The Mammalian Spinal Cord, Biochem. Pharmacol. 28: 1569 – 1573.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Commissiong, J. W., Gentleman, S., and Neff, N. H., 1979, Spinal Cord Dopaminergic Neurons: evidence for an uncrossed nigrospinal pathway, Neuropharmacology 18: 565 — 568.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Costall, B.,. Fortune, D. H., Law, S.-J., Naylor, R. J., Neumeyer, J. L., and Nohria, V., 1980A, (—)-N-(Chloroethyl)Norapomorphine Inhibits Striatal Dopamine Function Via Irreversible Receptor Binding, Nature (London) 285: 571–573.Google Scholar
  41. Costall, B., Fortune, D. H., Granchelli, F. E., Law, S.-J., Naylor, R. J., Neumeyer, J. L., and Nohria, V., 19806, On The Ability Of Iv-Chloroethylapomorphine Derivatives To Cause Irreversible Inhibition Of Dopamine Receptor Mechanisms,J. Pharrn. Pharmacol. 32:571–576.Google Scholar
  42. Cote, T., Munemura, M., Eskay, R. L., and Kebabian, J. W., 1980, Biochemical Identification Of The Beta-Adrenoceptor and Evidence For The Involvement Of A Cyclic Amp System In The Beta-Adrenergic-Induced Release Of Alpha-Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone In The Inter-Mediate Lobe Of The Rat Pituitary Gland , Endocrinology 107: 108–116.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Cote, T. E., Grewe, C. W., and Kebabian, J. W., 1981, Stimulation Of The D–2 Dopamine Receptor In The Intermediate Lobe Of The Rat Pituitary Gland Decreases The Responsiveness Of The Beta-Adrenoceptor: biochemical mechanism, Endocrinology 108: 420 – 426.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Coyle, J. T., and Schwarcz, R., 1976, Lesion Of The Striatal Neurones With Kainic Acid Provides A Model For Huntington’s Chorea, Nature (London) 263: 244 — 246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Creese, I., and Sibley, D. R., 1979, Radioligand Binding Studies: evidence for multiple dopamine receptors, Commun. Psychopharmacol. 3: 385 — 395.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Creese, I., and Sibley, D. R., 1980, Regulation Of Dopamine Receptors, In: Psychopharmacology and Biochemistry of Neurotransmitter Receptors ( H. I. Yamamura, R. W. Olsen, and E. Usdin, eds.), pp. 387–410, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  47. Creese, I., and Snyder, S. H., 1977, A Novel, Simple and Sensitive Radioreceptor Assay For Antischizophrenic Drugs In Blood, Nature (London) 270: 180 — 182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Creese, I., and Snyder, S. H., 1978, Dopamine Receptor Binding Of [3H]-Adtn (2-Amino- 6,7-Dihydroxy-L,2,3,4-Tetrahydronaphthalene) Regulated By Guanyl Nucleotides, Eur. J. Pharmacol. 50: 459–461.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Creese, I., and Snyder, S. H., 1979, Nigrostriatal Lesions Enhance Striatal [3H]Apomorphine and [3H]Spiroperidol Binding, Eur. J. Pharmacol. 56: 277 — 281.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Creese, I., Burt, D. R., and Snyder, S. H., 1975, Dopamine Receptor Binding: differentiation of agonist and antagonist states with [3H]dopamine and [3H]haloperidol, Life Sci. 17: 993–1002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Creese, I., Burt, D. R., and Snyder, S. H., 1976, Dopamine Receptor Binding Predicts Clinical and Pharmacological Potencies Of Antischizophrenic Drugs, Science 192: 481–483.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Creese, I., Schneider, R., and Snyder, S. H., 1977A, [3H]Spiroperidol Labels Dopamine Receptors In Pituitary and Brain, Eur. J. Pharmacol. 46:377–381.Google Scholar
  53. Creese, I., Burt, D. R., and Snyder, S. H., 1977B, Dopamine Receptor Binding Enhancement Accompanies Lesion-Induced Behavioral Supersensitivity, Science 197: 596–598.Google Scholar
  54. Creese, I., Burt, D. R., and Snyder, S. H., 1978A, Biochemical Actions Of Neuroleptic Drugs: focus on the dopamine receptor, in: Hand book of Psychopharmacology, Vol. 10 (L. L. Iversen, S. D. Iversen, and S. H. Snyder, eds.), pp. 37–89, Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  55. Creese, I., Prosser, T., and Snyder, S. H., 19786, Dopamine Receptor Binding: specificity, localization and regulation by ions and guanyl nucleotides, Life Sci. 23: 495–500.Google Scholar
  56. Creese, I., Padgett, L., Fazzini, E., and Lopez, F., 1979A, [3H]-N-Propylnorapomorphine: a novel agonist ligand for central dopamine receptors, Eur. J. Pharmacol. 56: 411–412.Google Scholar
  57. Creese, I., Usdin, T., and Snyder, S. H., 19796, Guanine Nucleotides Distinguish Between Two Dopamine Receptors, Nature (London) 278: 577–578.Google Scholar
  58. Creese, I., Usdin, T. B., and Snyder, S. H., 1979C, Dopamine Receptor Binding Regulated By Guanine Nucleotides, Mol Pharmacol 16: 69–76.Google Scholar
  59. Creese, I., Stewart, K., and Snyder, S. H., 1979D, Species Variations In Dopamine Receptor Binding, Eur. J. Pharmacol. 60:55—66.Google Scholar
  60. Cronin, M. J., and Weiner, R. I., 1979, [3H]Spiroperidol (Spiperone) Binding To A Putative Dopamine Receptor In Sheep and Steer Pituitary and Stalk Median Eminence, Endocrinology 104:307–312.Google Scholar
  61. Cronin, M. J., Roberts, J. M., and Weiner, R. I., 1978, Dopamine and Dihydroergocryptine Binding To The Anterior Pituitary and Other Brain Areas Of The Rat and Sheep, Endocrinology 103: 302–309.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Cronin, M. J., Cheung, C. Y., Beach, J. E., Faure, N., Goldsmith, P. C., and Weiner, R. I., 1980, Dopamine Receptors On Prolactin-Secreting Cells, In: Central and Peripheral Regulation of Prolactin Function ( R. M. MacLeod and U. Scapagnini, eds.), pp. 43 — 58, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  63. Cross, A. J., and Owen, F., 1980, Characteristics Of [3H]-Cw-Flupenthixol Binding To Calf Brain Membranes, Eur. J. Pharmacol. 65: 341–347.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Crow, T. J., Owen, F., Cross, A. J., Lofthouse, R., and Longden, A., 1978, Letters To The Editor, Lancet I: 36–37.Google Scholar
  65. Cuello, A. C., and Iverson, L. L., 1978, Interactions Of Dopamine With Other Neurotrans¬Mitters In The Rat Substantia Nigra: a possible functional role of dendritic dopamine, in: Interactions between Putative Neurotransmitters in the Brain ( S. Garattini, J. F. Pujol, and R. Samanin, eds.), pp. 127 — 149, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  66. Dahlstrom, A., and Fuxe, K., 1964, Evidence For The Existence Of Monoamine-Containing Neurons In The Central Nervous System. I. Demonstration Of Monoamines In The Cell Bodies Of Brainstem Neurons, Acta Physiol. Scand . Suppl. 62, 232: 1 — 55.Google Scholar
  67. Dannies, P. S., Gautvik, K. M., and Tashjian, A. H., 1976, A Possible Role Of Cyclic Amp In Mediating The Effects Of Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone On Prolactin Release and On Prolactin and Growth-Hormone Synthesis In Pituitary Cells In Culture, Endocrinology 98: 1147–1159.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Davies, B., Abood, L., and Tometsko, A. M., 1980, Utilization Of [3H]Dopamine As Photoaffinity Label Of Brain Synaptosomes, Life Sci. 26: 85 — 88.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. De Camilli, P., Macconi, D., and Sdada, A., 1979, Dopamine Inhibits Adenylate Cyclase In Human Prolactin-Secreting Pituitary Adenomas, Nature (London) 278: 252 — 254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. De Lean, A., Stadel, J. M., and Lefkowitz, R. J., 1980, A ternary complex model explains The Agonist-Specific Binding Properties Of The Adenylate Cyclase-Coupled Beta-Adrenergic Receptor, J. Biol. Chem. 255: 7108–7117.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Dinerstein, R. J., Vannice, J., Henderson, R. C., Roth, L. J., Goldberg, L. I., and Hoffmann, 1979, Histofluorescence Techniques Provide Evidence For Dopamine-Contain- Ing Neuronal Elements In Canine Kidney, Science 205: 497–499.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Dowling, J. E., and Ehinger, B., 1978A, Synaptic Organization Of The Dopaminergic Neurones In The Rabbit Retina,J. Comp. Neurol. 180:203–220.Google Scholar
  73. Dowling, J. E., and Ehinger, B., 19786, The Interplexiform Cell System. I. Synapses Of Dopaminergic Neurones Of The Goldfish Retina, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 201: 7–26.Google Scholar
  74. Dowling, J. E., and Watling, K. J., 1981, Dopaminergic Mechanisms In The Teleost Retina. Ii. Factors Affecting The Accumulation Of Cyclic Amp In Pieces Of Intact Carp Retina, J. Neurochem. 36: 569–579.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Ehinger, B., 1976, Biogenic Amines As Transmitters In The Retina, In: Transmitters in the Visual Process ( S. L. Bonting, ed.), pp. 145–163, Pergamon Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  76. Fielding, S., and Lal, H., 1978, Behavioral Actions Of Neuroleptics, In: Hand book of Psycho- pharmacology,Vol. 10 ( L. L. Iversen, S. D. Iversen, and S. H. Snyder, eds.), pp. 91–128, Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  77. Fields, J. Z., Reisine, T. D., and Yamamura, H. I., 1977, Biochemical Demonstration Of Dopaminergic Receptors In Rat and Human Brain Using [3H]Spiroperidol, Brain Res. 136: 578–584.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Fields, J. Z., Reisine, T. D., and Yamamura, H. I., 1979, Loss Of Striatal Dopaminergic Receptors After Intrastriatal Kainic Acid Injection, Life Sci. 23: 569–574.Google Scholar
  79. Freedman, S. B., and Woodruff, G. N., 1981, Effect Of Drugs On [3H]Sulpiride Binding In Rat Striatal Synaptic Membranes, Br. J. Pharmacol. 72: 129P–130 P.Google Scholar
  80. Friedhoff, A. J., Bonnet, K., and Rosengarten, H., 1977, Reversal Of Two Manifestations Of Dopamine Receptor Supersensitivity By Administration Of L-Dopa, Chem. Pathol. Pharmacol 16: 411–423.Google Scholar
  81. Friend, W. C., Brown, G. M., Jawahir, T. L., and Seeman, P., 1978, Effect Of Haloperidol and Apomorphine Treatment On Dopamine Receptors In Pituitary and Striatum, Am. J. Psychiatry 135: 839–841.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Fujita, N., Saito, K., Iwatsubo, K., Hirata, A., Noguchi, Y., and Yoshida, H., 1980, Binding Of [3H]Apomorphine To Striatal Membranes Prepared From Rat Brain After 6- Hydroxydopamine and Kainic Acid Lesions, Brain Res. 190: 593–596.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Furchgott, R. F., 1978, Pharmacological Characterization Of Receptors: its relation to radioligand -binding studies, Fed. Proc. 37: 115–120.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Fuxe, K., Hall, H., and Kohler, C., 1979, Evidence For An Exclusive Localization Of 3H- Adtn Binding Sites To Postsynaptic Nerve Cells In The Striatum Of The Rat, Eur. J. Pharmacol. 58: 515–517.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Gale, K., Guidotti, A., and Costa, E., 1977, Dopamine-Sensitive Adenylate Cyclase: location in substantia nigra, Science 195: 503–505.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Garau, L., Govoni, S., Stefanini, E., Trabucchi, M., and Spano, P. F., 1978, Dopamine Receptors: pharmacological and anatomical evidences indicate that two distinct dopamine receptor populations are present in rat striatum, Life Sci. 23: 1745–1750.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Geffen, L. B., Jessel, T. M., Cuello, A. C., and Iversen, L. L., 1976, Release Of Dopamine From Dendrites In Rat Substantia Nigra, Nature (London) 260: 258–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Giannattasio, G., Deferrari, M. E., and Spada, A., 1981, Dopamine-Inhibited Adenylate Cyclase In Female Rat Adenohypophysis, Life Sci. 28: 1605–1612.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Glossmann, H., and Hornung, R., 1980, Alpha-Adrenoreceptors In Rat Brain: sodium changes the affinity of agonists for prazosin sites, Eur. J. Pharmacol. 61: 407–408.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Goldsmith P.C., Cronin, M.J., and Weiner, R.I., 1979, Dopamine receptor sites in the anterior pituitary, J. Histochem. Cytochem. 27: 1205 - 1207.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Gorissen, H., and Laduron, P., 1979, Solubilisation Of High-Affinity Dopamine Receptors, Nature (London) 279: 72–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Gorissen, H., Ilien, B., Aerts, G., and Laduron, P., 1980, Differentiation Of Solubilized Dopamine Receptors From Spirodecanone Binding Sites In Rat Striatum, Febs Lett. 121: 133–138.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Govoni, S., Olgiati, V. R., Trabucchi, M., Garau, L., Stefanini, E., and Spano, P. F., 1978, [3H]Haloperidol and [3H]Spiroperidol Receptor Binding After Striatal Injection Of Kainic Acid, Neurosci. Lett. 8: 207–210.Google Scholar
  94. Greengard, P., 1976, Possible Role For Cyclic Nucleotides and Phosphorylated Membrane Proteins In Postsynaptic Actions Of Neurotransmitters, Nature (London) 260: 101–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Groves, P. M., Wilson, C. J., Young, S. J., and Rebec, G. V., 1975, Self-Inhibition By Dopaminergic Neurons, Science 190: 522–528.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Hamblin, M., and Creese, I., 1980, Phenoxybenzamine Discriminates Multiple Dopamine Receptors, Eur. J. Pharmacol. 65:119— 121.Google Scholar
  97. Hamblin, M. W., and Creese, I., 1982A, Phenoxybenzamine Treatment Differentiates Dopa-Minergic [3H]Ligand Binding Sites In Bovine Caudate Membranes, Mol. Pharmacol. 21:41–51.Google Scholar
  98. Hamblin, M. W., and Creese, I., 19826, Heat Treatment Mimics Guanosine–5-Triphosphate Effects On Dopaminergic [3H]Ligand Binding To Bovine Caudate Membranes, Mol. Pharmacol. 21: 52–56.Google Scholar
  99. Hamblin, M. W., and Creese, I., 1982C, [3H]Dopamine Binding To Rat Striatal D–2 and D–3 Sites: enhancement by magnesium and inhibition by sodium, Life Sci. 30: 1587 — 1595.Google Scholar
  100. Henn, F. A., and erson, D. J., and Sellstrom, A., 1977, Possible Relationship Between Glial Cells, Dopamine and The Effects Of Antipsychotic Drugs, Nature (London) 266: 637–638.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Henn, F. A., Titeler, M., and erson, D. J., and May, K., 1978, Investigations Concerning The Cellular Origin Of Dopamine Receptors, Life Sci. 23: 617 — 622.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Hoffman, B. B., and Lefkowitz, R. J., 1980, Radioligand Binding Studies Of Adrenergic Receptors: new insights into molecular and physiological regulation, Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 20: 581–608.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Hokfelt, T., Halasz, N., Ljungdahl, A., Johansson, O., Goldstein, M., and Park, D., 1975, Histochemical Support For A Dopaminergic Mechanism In The Dendrites Of Certain Periglomerular Cells In The Rat Olfactory Bulb, Neurosci. Lett. 1: 85 — 90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Horn, A. S., and Snyder, S. H., 1971, Chlorpromazine and Dopamine: conformational similarities that correlate with the antischizophrenic activity of phenothiazine drugs, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 68: 2325–2328.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Hornykiewicz, O., 1966, Dopamine and Brain Function, Pharmacol. Res. 18: 925–964.Google Scholar
  106. Howlett, A. C., Van Arsdale, P. M., and Gilman, A. G., 1978, Efficiency Of Coupling Between The Beta-Adrenergic Receptor and Adenylate Cyclase, Mol. Pharmacol. 14: 531–539.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Howlett, D. R., and Nahorski, S. R., 1978, A Comparative Study Of [3H]Haloperidol and [3H]Spiroperidol Binding To Receptors On Rat Cerebral Membranes, Febs Lett. 87: 152–156.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Howlett, D. R., and Nahorski, S. R., 1979, Acute and Chronic Amphetamine Treatments Modulate Striatal Dopamine Receptor Binding Sites, Brain Res. 161: 173–178.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Hyttel, J., 1978A, A Comparison Of The Effect Of Neuroleptic Drugs On The Binding Of [3H]- Haloperidol and [3H]-Os(Z)-Ftupenthixol and On Adenylate Cyclase Activity In Rat Striatal Tissue In Vitro, Prog. Neuro-Psychopharmacol. 2:329—335.Google Scholar
  110. Hyttel, J., 19786, Effects Of Neuroleptics On [3H]Haloperidol and [3H]-As(Z)-Flupenthixol Binding and On Adenylate Cyclase Activity In Vitro, Life Sci. 23:551–556.Google Scholar
  111. Hyttel, J., 1980, Further Evidence That [3H]-As(Z)Flupenthixol Binds To The Adenylate Cyclase- Associated Dopamine Receptor (D-L) In Rat Corpus Striatum, Psychopharmacology 67: 107 — 109.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Hyttel, J., 1981, Similarities Between The Binding Of [3H]Piflutixol and [3H]Flupentixol To Rat Striatal Dopamine Receptors In Vitro, Life Sci. 28: 563 — 569.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Iversen, L. L., 1975, Dopamine Receptors In The Brain, Science 188: 1084–1089.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Iversen, L. L., Rogawski, M. A., and Miller, R. J., 1976, Comparison Of The Effects Of Neuroleptic Drugs On Pre- and Postsynaptic Dopaminergic Mechanisms In The Rat Striatum, Mol. Pharmacol. 12: 251–262.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Iversen, S. D., 1977, Brain Dopamine Systems and Behavior, In: Hand book of Psychopharmacology, Vol. 8 ( L. L. Iversen, S. D. Iversen, and S. H. Snyder, eds.), pp. 333–384, Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  116. Jacobs, S., and Cuatrecasas, P., 1976, The Mobile Receptor Hypothesis and “Cooperativity” Of Hormone Binding, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 433: 482–495.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Janssen, P. A. J., and Vanbever, W. F. M., 1978, Structure-Activity Relationships Of The Butyrophenones and Biphenylbutylpiperidines, In: Hand book of Psychopharmacology, Vol. 10 ( L. L. Iversen, S. D. Iversen, and S. H. Snyder, eds.), pp. 1–36, Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  118. Jenner, P., and Marsden, C. D., 1979, The Substituted Benzamides—A Novel Class Of Dopamine Antagonists, Life Sci. 25: 479–486.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Kebabian, J. W., and Saavedra, J. M., 1976, Dopamine-Sensitive Adenylate Cyclase Occurs In A Region Of Substantia Nigra Containing Dopaminergic Dendrites, Science 193: 683–685.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Kebabian, J. W., and Calne, D. B., 1979, Multiple Receptors For Dopamine, Nature (London) 277: 93–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Kebabian, J. W., Petzold, G. L., and Greengard, P., 1972, Dopamine-Sensitive Adenylate Cyclase In Caudate Nucleus Of Rat Brain and Its Similarity To The “Dopamine Receptor,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. Usa 79: 2145–2149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Kent, R. S., De Lean, A., and Lefkowitz, R. J., 1980, A Quantitative Analysis Of Beta- Adrenergic Receptor Interactions: resolution of high- and low-affinity states of the receptor by computer modeling of ligand binding data, Mol. Pharmacol. 17: 14 — 23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Klawans, H. L., 1973, The Pharmacology Of Tardive Dyskinesias, Am. J. Psychiatry 130: 82 — 86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Klawans, H. L., Weiner, W. J., and Nausieda, P. A., 1977, The Effect Of Lithium On An Animal Model Of Tardive Dyskinesia, Prog. Neuro-Psychopharmacol. 1: 53–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Komiskey, H. L., Bossart, J. F., Miller, D. D., and Patil, P. N., 1978, Conformation Of Dopamine At The Dopamine Receptor, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. Usa 75: 2641–2643.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Kramer, S. G., 1976, Dopamine In Retinal Neurotransmission, In: Transmitters in the Visual Process ( S. L. Bontig, ed.), pp. 165 — 198, Pergamon Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  127. Labrie, F., Beaulieu, M., Ferland , L., Raymond, V., Dipaolo, T., Caron, M. G., Veilleux, R., Denizeau, F., Euvrad, C., Raynaud, J. P., and Boissier, J. R., 1979, Control Of Prolactin Secretion At The Pituitary Level: a model for postsynaptic dopaminergic systems, in: Central Nervous System Effects of Hypothalamic Hormones and Other Peptides ( R. Collu, A. Barbeau, and J. Rochefort, eds.), pp. 207–234, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  128. Labrie, F., Ferland , L., Dipaolo, T., and Veilleux, R., 1980, Modulation Of Prolactin Secretion By Sex Steroids and Thyroid Hormones, In: Central and Peripheral Regulation of Prolactin Function ( R. M. MacLeod and U. Scapagnini, eds.), pp. 97 — 113, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  129. Laduron, P. M., and Leysen, J. E., 1979, Domperidone, A Specific In Vitro Dopamine Antagonist, Devoid Of In Vivo Central Dopaminergic Activity, Biochem. Pharmacol. 28:2161 –2165.Google Scholar
  130. Lal, H., Brown, W., Drawbaugh, R., Hynes, M., and Brown, G., 1977, Enhanced Prolactin Inhibition Following Chronic Treatment With Haloperidol and Morphine, Life Sci. 20: 101–106.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Lee, T., and Seeman, P., 1980, Elevation Of Brain Neuroleptic/Dopamine Receptors In Schizophrenia, Am. J. Psychiatry 137: 191–197.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Lee, T., Seeman, P., Rajput, A., Farley, I., and Hornykiewicz, O., 1978A, Receptor Basis For Dopaminergic Supersensitivity In Parkinson’s Disease, Nature (London) 273:59–61.Google Scholar
  133. Lee, T., Seeman, P., Tourtellotte, W., Farley, W. W., and Hornykiewicz, O., 19786, Binding Of [3H]Neuroleptics and [3H]Apomorphine In Schizophrenic Brains, Nature (London) 27B4:897–900.Google Scholar
  134. Leff, S., and Creese, I., 1982, Solubilization Of A Quanine Nucleotide Sensitive Form Of The D–2 Dopamine Receptor From Brain Requires Agonist Occupancy, Fed. Proc. 41: 1633.Google Scholar
  135. Leff, S., and Creese, I., 1982, Acute Reserpine Mimics The Effects Of Nigrostriatal 6- Hydroxydopamine Lesions On “D–3” Specific [3H]Dopamine Binding In Rat Striatum, Soc. Neurosci. Abst. 8: 654.Google Scholar
  136. Leff, S., Adams, L., Hyttel, J., and Creese, I., 1981, Kainate Lesion Dissociates Striatal Dopamine Receptor Radioligand Binding Sites, Eur. J. Pharmacol. 70: 71–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Lefkowitz, R. J., 1980, Modification Of Adenylate Cyclase Activity By Alpha- and Beta- Adrenergic Receptors: insights from radioligand binding studies, in: Psychopharmacology and Biochemistry of Neurotransmitter Receptors ( H. I. Yamamura, R. W. Olsen, and E. Usdin, eds.), pp. 155–170, Elsevier Press, New York.Google Scholar
  138. Lew, J. Y., and Goldstein, M., 1979, Dopamine Receptor Binding For Agonists and Antagonists In Thermal Exposed Membranes, Eur. J. Pharmacol. 55: 429–430.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Leysen, J. E., 1979, Unitary Dopaminergic Receptor Composed Of Cooperatively Linked Agonist and Antagonist Sub-Unit Binding Sites, Commun. Psychopharmacol. 3: 397 — 410.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Leysen, J. E., Gommeren, W., and Laduron, P. M., 1978A, Spiperone: a ligand of choice for neuroleptic receptors. 1. Kinetics and characteristics of in vitro binding, Biochem. Pharmacol. 27: 307–316.Google Scholar
  141. Leysen, J. E., Niemegeers, C. J. E., Tollenaere, J. P., and Laduron, P. M., 19786, Serotonergic Component Of Neuroleptic Receptors, Nature (London) 272: 168–171.Google Scholar
  142. Leysen, J. E., Awouters, F., Kennis, L., Laduron, P. M., Vand enberk, J., and Janssen, P. A. J., 1981, Receptor Binding Profile Of R 41 468, A Novel Antagonist At 5-Ht2 Receptors, Life Sci. 28: 1015–1022.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Libet, B., 1976, The Sif Cell As A Functional Dopamine-Releasing Interneuron In The Rabbit Superior Cervical Ganglion, In: SIF Cells. Structure and Function of the Small, Intensely Fluorescent Sympathetic Cells, Fogarty Int. Ctr. Proc. 30, pp. 163–177, DHEW-NIH 76- 942.Google Scholar
  144. Limbird, L. E., Gill, D. M., and Lefkowitz, R. J., 1980A, Agonist-Promoted Coupling Of The Beta-Adrenergic Receptor With The Guanine Nucleotide Regulatory Protein Of The Adenylate Cyclase*System, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. Usa 77: 775–779.Google Scholar
  145. Limbird, L. E., Gill, D. M., Stadel, J. M., Hickey, A. R., and Lefkowitz, R. J., 19806, Loss Of Beta-Adrenergic Receptor—Guanine Nucleotide Regulatory Protein Interactions Accom¬Panies Decline In Catecholamine Responsiveness Of Adenylate Cyclase In Maturing Rat Erythrocytes, J. Biol. Chem. 255:1854–1861.Google Scholar
  146. Lindvall, O., and Bjorklund, A., 1974, The Glyoxylic Acid Fluorescence Histochemical Method: a detailed account of the methodology for the visualization of central catechol¬amine neurons, Histochemistry 39: 97–127.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Lindvall, O., and Bjorklund, A., 1977, Organization Of Catecholamine Neurons In The Rat Central Nervous System, In: Hand book of Psychopharmacology Vol. 9 ( L. Iversen, S. Iversen, and S. H. Snyder, eds.), pp. 139–231, Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  148. Lindvall, O., Bjorklund, A., and Divac, I., 1978, Organization Of Catecholamine Neurons Projecting To The Frontal Cortex In The Rat, Brain Res. 142: 1–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. List, S. J., and Seeman, P., 1979, Dopamine Agonists Reverse The Elevated [3H]Neuroleptic Binding In Neuroleptic-Pretreated Rats, Life Sci. 24: 1447–1452.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. List, S., Titeler, M., and Seeman, P., 1980, High-Affinity [3H]Dopamine Receptors (D3 Sites) In Human and Rat Brain, Biochem. Pharmacol. 29:1621 — 1622.Google Scholar
  151. Mackay, A. V. P., Bird, E. D., Iversen, L. L., Spokes, E. G., Creese, I., and Snyder, S. H., 1980«, Dopaminergic Abnormalities In Postmortem Schizophrenic Brain, In: Long-Term Effects of Neuroleptics (F. Cattabeni, G. Racagni, P. F. Spano, and E. Costa, eds.), pp. 325–333, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  152. Mackay, A. V. P., Bird, E. D., Spokes, E. G., Rossor, M., Iversen, L. L., Creese, I., and Snyder, S. H., 19806, Dopamine Receptors and Schizophrenia: drug effect or illness? Lancet ii:915—916.Google Scholar
  153. Macleod, R. M., Nagy, L, Login, I. S., Kimura, H., Valdenegro, C. A., and Thorner, M. D., 1980, The Role Of Dopamine, Camp, and Calcium In Prolactin Secretion, In: Central and Peripheral Regulation of Prolactin Function ( R. M. MacLeod and U. Scapagnini, eds.), pp. 27 — 41, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  154. Madras, B. K., Davis, A., Kunashko, P., and Seeman, P., 1980, Solubilization Of Dopamine Receptors From Dog and Human Brains, In: Psychopharmacology and Biochemistry of Neuro¬transmitter Receptors ( H. I. Yamamura, R. W. Olsen, and E. Usdin, eds.), pp. 411–419, Elsevier/North-Holland , New York.Google Scholar
  155. Magistretti, P. J., and Schorderet, M., 1979, Dopamine Receptors In Bovine Retina: characterization of the [3H]spiroperidol binding and its use for screening dopamine receptor affinity of drugs, Life Sci. 25: 1675–1686.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Makman, M. H., Dvorkin, B., Horowitz, S. G., and Thal, L. J., 1980A, Properties Of Dopamine Agonist and Antagonist Binding Sites In Mammalian Retina, Brain Res. 194:403–418.Google Scholar
  157. Makman, M. H., Dvorkin, B., Horowitz, S. G., and Thal, L. J., 19806, Retina Contains Guanine Nucleotide Sensitive and Insensitive Classes Of Dopamine Receptors, Eur. J. Pharmacol. 63: 217–222.Google Scholar
  158. Marchais, D., and Bockaert, J., 1980, Is There A Connection Between High-Affinity [3H]- Spiperone Binding Sites and Da-Sensitive Adenylate Cyclase In Corpus Striatum? Biochem. Pharmacol. 29: 1331–1336.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Martres, M.-P., Sokoloff, P., and Schwartz, J. C., 1980, Three Classes Of Dopaminergic Receptors Evidenced By Two Radioligand s: [3H]apomorphine and [3H]domperidone, in: Psychopharmacology and Biochemistry of Neurotransmitter Receptors ( H.I. Yamamura, R. W. Olsen, and E. Usdin, eds.), pp. 421–434, Elsevier/North-Holland , New York.Google Scholar
  160. Mcgeer, E. G., and Mcgeer, P. L., 1976, Duplication Of Biochemical Changes Of Huntington’s Chorea By Intrastriatal Injection Of Glutamic and Kainic Acid, Nature (London) 263: 517–519.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Memo, M., Spano, P. F., and Trabucchi, M., 1981, Characterization Of Dopamine-D2 Central Receptors, Br. J. Pharmacol. 72:124P~125P.Google Scholar
  162. Miller, R. J., and Mcdermed, J., 1979, Dopamine-Sensitive Adenylate Cyclase, In: The Neurobiology of Dopamine ( A. S. Horn, J. Korf, and B. H. C. Westerink, eds.), pp. 159–177, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  163. Miller, R. J., Horn, A. S., and Iversen, L. L., 1974, The Action Of Neuroleptic Drugs On Dopamine-Stimulated Adenosine Cyclic 3’,5’-Monophosphate Production In Rat Neostria¬Tum and Limbic Forebrain, Mol. Pharmacol. 10: 759 — 766.Google Scholar
  164. Mishra, R. K., Wong, Y-W., Varmuza, S. L., and Tuff, L., 1978, Chemical Lesion and Drug- Induced Supersensitivity and Subsensitivity Of Caudate Dopamine Receptors, Life Sci. 23: 443–446.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Moore, R. Y., and Bloom, F. E., 1978, Central Catecholamine Neuron Systems: anatomy and physiology of the dopamine systems, Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 1: 129–169.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Moos, F., and Richard, P., 1979, Effects Of Dopaminergic Antagonist and Agonist On Oxytocin Release Induced By Various Stimuli, Neuroendocrinology 28: 138–144.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Mowles, T. F., Burghardt, B., Burghardt, C., Charneki, A., and Sheppard, H., 1978, The Dopamine Receptor Of The Rat Mammotroph In Cell Culture As A Model For Drug Action, Life Sci. 22: 2103–2108.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Muller, P., and Seem An, P., 1978, Dopaminergic Supersensitivity After Neuroleptics: time course and specificity, Psychopharmacology 60: 1–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Muller, P., and Seeman, P., 1979, Presynaptic Subsensitivity As A Possible Basis For Sensitization By Long-Term Dopamine Mimetics, Eur. J. Pharmacol. 55: 149–157.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Munemura, M., Cote, T. E., Tsuruta, K., Eskay, R. L., and Kebabian, J. W., 1980A, The Dopamine Receptor In The Intermediate Lobe Of The Rat Pituitary: pharmacological characterization, Endocrinology 107:1683–1686.Google Scholar
  171. Munemura, M., Eskay, R. L., and Kebabian, J. W., 19806, Release Of Alpha-Melanocyte- Stimulating Hormone From Dispersed Cells Of The Intermediate Lobe Of The Rat Pituitary Gland : involvement of catecholamines and adenosine 3’,5’-monophosphate, Endocrinology 106: 1795–1803.Google Scholar
  172. Munson, P. J., and Rodbard, D., 1980, Ligand : a versatile computerized approach for characterization of ligand -binding systems, Anal. Biochem. 107: 220–239.Google Scholar
  173. Murrin, L. C., Gale, K., and Kuhar, M. J., 1979, Autoradiographic Localization Of Neuroleptic and Dopamine Receptors In The Caudate-Putamen and Substantia Nigra: effects of lesions, Eur. J. Pharmacol. 60: 229–235.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Nagy, J. I., Lee, T., Seeman, P., and Fibiger, H. C., 1978, Direct Evidence For Presynaptic and Postsynaptic Dopamine Receptors In Brain, Nature (London) 274: 278–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Naor, Z., Snyder, G., Fawcett, C. P., and Mccann, S. M., 1980, Pituitary cyclic nucleotides and Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone Action: the relationship of adenosine 3’,5’-mono- phosphate and guanosine S’,5’-monophosphate to the release of thyrotropin and prolactin, Endocrinology 106: 1304–1310.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Neumeyer,J. L., Law, S. J., Baldessarini, R.J., and Kula, N. S., 1980, (-)-Iv-(2-Chloroethyl)- 10,11-Dihydroxynoraporphine (Chloroethylnorapomorphine), A Novel Irreversible Do-Pamine Receptor Antagonist,J. Med. Chern. 23:595–599.Google Scholar
  177. Nieoullon, A., Cheramy, A., and Glowinski, J., 1977, Release Of Dopamine In Vivo From Cat Substantia Nigra, Nature (London) 266: 375 — 377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Nishikori, K., Osamu, N., Sanq, K., and Maeno, H., 1980, Characterization, Solubilization, and Separation Of Two Distinct Dopamine Receptors In Canine Caudate Nucleus, J. Biol. Chem. 255: 10909–10915.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. Ogren, S. O., Hall, H., and Kohler, C., 1978, Studies On The Stereoselective Dopamine Receptor Blockade In The Rat Brain By Rigid Spiro Amines, Life Sci. 23: 1769–1774.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Owen, F., Cross, A. J., Waddington, J. L., Poulter, M., Gamble, S. J., and Crow, T. J., 1980, Dopamine-Mediated Behaviour and [3H]Spiperone Binding To Striatal Membranes In Rats After Nine Months Haloperidol Administration, Life Sci. 26: 55–59.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Pardo, J. S., Creese, I., Burt, D. R., and Snyder, S. H., 1977, Ontogenesis Of Dopamine Receptor Binding In The Corpus Striatum Of The Rat, Brain Res. 125: 376–382.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Pawlikowski, M., Karasek, E., Kunert-Radek, J., and Stepien, H., 1979, Dopamine Blockade Of The Thyroliberin-Induced Cyclic Amp Accumulation In Rat Anterior Pituitary, J. Neural Transm. 45: 75 — 79.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Pawlikowski, M., Karasek, E., Kunert-Radek, J., and Jaranowska, M., 1981, Effects Of Dopamine On Cyclic Amp Concentration In The Anterior Pituitary Gland In Vitro, J. Neural Transm. 50: 179–184.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Peroutka, S. J., and Snyder, S. H., 1979, Multiple Serotonin Receptors: differential binding of [sH]5-hydroxytryptamine, [3H]lysergic acid diethylamide, and [3H]spiroperidol, Mol. Pharmacol. 16: 687–699.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. Pert, A., Rosenblatt, J., Swit, C., Pert, C., and Bunney, W. E., 1978, Long-Term Treatment With Lithium Prevents The Development Of Dopamine Receptor Supersensitivity, Science 201: 171–173.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Pert, C. B., Pasternak, G., and Snyder, S. H., 1973, Opiate Agonists and Antagonists Discriminated By Receptor Binding In Brain, Science 182: 1359–1361.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Phillipson, O. T., and Horn, A. S., 1976, Substantia Nigra Of The Rat Contains A Dopamine- Sensitive Adenylate Cyclase, Nature (London) 261: 418 — 420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Phillipson, O. T., Emson, P. C., Horn, A. S., and Jessell, T., 1977, Evidence Concerning The Anatomical Location Of The Dopamine-Stimulated Adenylate Cyclase In The Substantia Nigra, Brain Res. 136: 45–58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Pickel, V. M., Joh, T. H., Field, P. M., Becker, C. G., and Reis, D. J., 1975, Cellular Localization Of Tyrosine Hydroxylase By Immunohistochemistry, J. Histochem. Cytochem. 23: 1–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Pike, L. J., and Lefkowitz, R. J., 1980, Activation and Desensitization Of Beta-Adrenergic Receptor-Coupled Gtpase and Adenylate Cyclase Of Frog and Turkey Erythrocyte Mem¬Branes, J. Biol. Chem. 255: 6860–6867.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. Premont, J., Thierry, A. M., Taassin, J. P., Glowinski, J. G., and Bockaert, J., 1976, Is The Dopamine-Sensitive Adenylate Cyclase In The Rat Substantia Nigra Coupled With Autoreceptors? Febs Lett. 68: 99–104.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Quik, M., and Iversen, L. L., 1978, Subsensitivity Of The Rat Striatal Dopaminergic System After Treatment With Bromocriptine: effects of [3H]spiperone binding and dopamine- stimulated cyclic AMP formation, Naunyn-Schmiedeberg’s Arch. Pharmacol. 304: 141–145.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Quik, M., and Iversen, L. L., 1979, Regional Study Of [3H]Spiperone Binding and The Dopamine-Sensitive Adenylate Cyclase In Rat Brain, Eur. J. Pharmacol. 56: 323–330.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Quik, M., Iversen, L. L., Larder, A., and Mackay, A. V. P., 1978, Use Of Adtn To Define Specific [3H]Spiperone Binding To Receptors In Brain, Nature (London) 274: 513–514.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Quik, M., Emson, P. C., and Joyce, E., 1979, Dissociation between the presynaptic dopamine Sensitive Adenylate Cyclase and [3H]Spiperone Binding Sites In Rat Substantia Nigra, Brain Res. 167: 355–375.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Ray, K. P., and Wallis, M., 1980, Is Cyclic Adenosine 3’5’-Monophosphate Involved In The Dopamine-Mediated Inhibition Of Prolactin Secretion? J. Endocrinol. 85: 59 p.Google Scholar
  197. Redburn, D. A., Clement-Cormier, Y., and Lam, D. M. K., 1980, Dopamine Receptors In The Goldfish Retina: [3H]spiroperidol and [3H]domperidone binding; and dopamine-stimu- lated adenylate cyclase activity, Life Sci. 27: 23–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Reisine, T. D., Nagy, J. I., Fibiger, H. C., and Yamamura, H. I., 1979, Localization Of Dopamine Receptors In Rat Brain, Brain Res. 169: 209–214.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Reubi, J.-C., Iversen, L. L., and Jessell, T. M., 1977, Dopamine Selectively Increases [3H]- Gaba Release From Slices Of Rat Substantia Nigra In Vitro, Nature (London) 268: 652–654.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Rodbell, M., 1980, The Role Of Hormone Receptors and Gtp-Regulatory Proteins In Membrane Transduction, Nature (London) 284: 17–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Rosenblatt, J. E., Del Carmen, R., and Wyatt, R., 1980, A High-Affinity Gtp Binding Site In Rat Brain, Eur. J. Pharmacol. 64: 365–366.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Ross, E. M., and Gilman, A. G., 1980, Biochemical Properties Of Hormone-Sensitive Adenylate Cyclase, Annu. Rev. Biochem. 49: 533–564.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Ross, E. M., Maguire, M. E., Sturgill, T. W., Biltonen, R. L., and Gilman, A. G., 1977, Relationship Between The Beta-Adrenergic Receptor and Adenylate Cyclase. Studies Of Ligand Binding and Enzyme Activity In Purified Membranes Of S49 Lymphoma Cells, J. Biol. Chem. 252: 5761–5775.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. Roth, R. H., 1979, Dopamine Autoreceptors: pharmacology, function, and comparison with postsynaptic dopamine receptors, Commun. Psychopharmacol. 3: 429 — 445.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. Sarthy, P. J,, and Lam, D. M. K., 1979, The Uptake and Release Of [3H]Dopamine In The Goldfish Retina,J. Neurochem. 32: 1269–1277.Google Scholar
  206. Schachter, M., Bedard, P., Debono, A. G., Jenner, P., Marsden, C. D., Price, P., Parkes, J. D., Keenan, J., Smith, B., Rosenthaler, J., Horowski, R., and Dorow, R., 1980, The Role Of D-L and D–2 Receptors, Nature (London) 286: 157–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Schmidt, M. J., 1979, Perspectives On Dopamine-Sensitive Adenylate Cyclase In The Brain, In: Neuropharmacology of Cyclic Nucleotides ( G. C. Palmer, ed.), pp. 1 — 52, Urban & Schwartz- enberg, Baltimore.Google Scholar
  208. Schmidt, M. J., and Hill, L. E., 1977, Effects Of Ergots On Adenylate Cyclase Activity In The Corpus Striatum and Pituitary, Life Sci. 20: 789–798.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Schorderet, M., 1977, Pharmacological Characterization Of The Dopamine-Mediated Accu-Mulation Of Cyclic Amp In Intact Retina Of Rabbit, Life Sci. 20: 1741–1748.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. Schwarcz, R., and Coyle, J. T., 1977, Neurochemical Sequelae Of Kainate Injections In Corpus Striatum and Substantia Nigra Of The Rat, Life Sci. 20: 431–436.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Schwarcz, R., Creese, I., Coyle, J. T., and Snyder, S. H., 1978, Dopamine Receptors Localised On Cerebral Cortical Afferents To Rat Corpus Striatum, Nature (London) 271: 766–768.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. Seeman, P., Chau-Wong, M., Tedesco, J., and Wong, K., 1975, Brain Receptors For Antipsychotic Drugs and Dopamine: direct binding assays, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 72: 4376–4380.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. Seeman, P., Lee, T., Chau-Wong, M., Tedesco, J., and Wong, K., 1976A, Dopamine Receptors In Human and Calf Brains, Using [3H]Apomorphine and An Antipsychotic Drug, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. Usa 73:4354–4358.Google Scholar
  214. Seeman, P., Lee, T., Chau-Wong, M., and Wong, K., 19766, Antipsychotic Drug Doses and Neuroleptic/Dopamine Receptors, Nature (London) 261: 717–719.Google Scholar
  215. Seeman, P., Tedesco, J. L., Lee, M., Chau-Wong, M., Muller, P., Bowles, J., Whitaker, P. M., Mcmanus, C., Tittler, M., Weinreich, P., Friend, W. C., and Brown, G. M., 1978, Dopamine Receptors In The Central Nervous System, Fed. Proc. 37: 130–136.Google Scholar
  216. Seeman, P., Woodruff, G. N., and Poat, J. A., 1979, Similar Binding Of [3H]-Adtn and [3H]Apomorphine To Calf Brain Dopamine Receptors, Eur. J. Pharmacol. 55: 137–142.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. Segal, D. S., Weinberger, S. B., Cahill, J., and Mccunney, S. J., 1980, Multiple daily Amphetamine Administration: behavioral and neurochemical alterations, Science 207: 904–907.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. Settler, P. E., Sarau, H. M., Zircle, C. L., Saunders, H. L., 1978, The Central Effects Of A Novel Dopamine Agonist, Eur. J. Pharmacol. 50: 419–430.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. Sibley, D. R., and Creese, I., 1979, Multiple Pituitary Dopamine Receptors: effects of guanine nucleotides, Soc. Neurosci. Abstr. 5: 352.Google Scholar
  220. Sibley, D. R., and Creese, I., 1980A, Anterior Pituitary Dopamine Receptors: heterogeneity of agonist binding, Fed. Proc. 39: 1098.Google Scholar
  221. Sibley, D. R., and Creese, I., 1980B, Dopamine Receptor Binding In Bovine Intermediate Lobe Pituitary Membranes, Endocrinology 107:1405—1409.Google Scholar
  222. Snyder, S. H., Creese, I., and Burt, D. R., 1975, The Brain’s Dopamine Receptor: labeling with [3H]dopamine and [3H]haloperidol, Psychopharmacol. Commun. 1: 663–673.Google Scholar
  223. Sokoloff, P., Martres, M.-P., and Schwartz, J.-C., 1980A, [Sh]Apomorphine Labels Both Dopamine Postsynaptic Receptors and Autoreceptors, Nature (London) 288: 283–286.Google Scholar
  224. Sokoloff, P., Martres, M.-P., and Schwartz, J.-C., 19806, Three Classes Of Dopamine Receptor (D–2, D–3, D–4) Identified By Binding Studies With [3H]Apomorphine and [3H] Domperidone, Naunyn-Schmiedeberg’s Arch. Pharmacol. 315: 89 — 102.Google Scholar
  225. Spano, P. F., Dichiara, G., Tonon, G. C., and Trabucchi, M., 1976, A Dopamine-Stimulated Adenylate Cyclase In Rat Substantia Nigra, J. Neurochem. 27: 1565 — 1568.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. Spano, P. F., Trabucchi, M., and Dichiara, G., 1977, Localization Of Nigral Dopamine- Sensitive Adenylate Cyclase On Neurons Originating From The Corpus Striatum, Science 196: 1343–1345.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. Stefanini, E., Dejoto, P., Marchisio, A., Vernaleone, F., and Collu, R., 1980, [3H] Spiroperidol Binding To A Putative Dopaminergic Receptor In Rat Pituitary Gland , Life Sci. 26:583–587.Google Scholar
  228. Suen, E. T., Stefanini, E., and Clement-Cormier, Y. C., 1980, Evidence For Essential Thiol Groups and Disulfide Bonds In Agonist and Antagonist Binding To The Dopamine Receptor, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 96: 953 — 960.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. Thal, L., Creese, I., and Snyder, S. H., 1978, [3H]Apomorphine Interactions With Dopamine Receptors In Calf Brain, Eur. J. Pharmacol. 49:295—299.Google Scholar
  230. Theodorou, A., Crockett, M., Jenner, P., and Marsden, C. D., 1979, Specific Binding Of [3H]Sulpiride To Rat Striatal Preparations, J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 31: 424–426.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. Theodorou, A. E., Hall, M. D., Jenner, P., and Marsden, C. D., 1980, Cation Regulation Differentiates Specific Binding Of [3H]Sulpiride and [3H]Spiperone To Rat Striatal Prepa-Rations, J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 32: 441–444.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. Titeler, M., and Seeman, P., 1978, Antiparkinsonian Drug Doses and Neuroleptic Receptors, Experientia 34: 1490–1492.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. Titeler, M., and Seeman, P., 1979, Selective Labeling Of Different Dopamine Receptors By A New Agonist [3H]Ligand : [3H]–7V-propylnorapomorphine, Eur. J. Pharmacol. 56:291- 292.Google Scholar
  234. Titeler, M., Weinreich, P., Sinclair, D., and Seeman, P., 1978, Multiple Receptors For Brain Dopamine, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. Usa 75: 1153–1156.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. Titeler, M., List, S., and Seeman, P., 1979, High-Affinity Dopamine Receptors (D3) In Rat Brain, Commun. Psychopharmacol. 3: 411 — 420.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. Tollenaere, J. P., Moereels, H., and Koch, M. H. J., 1977, On The Conformation Of Neuroleptic Drugs In The Three Aggregation States and Their Conformational Resemblance To Dopamine, Eur. J. Med. Chem. 12: 199–211.Google Scholar
  237. Traficante, L. J., Friedman, E., Oleshansky, M. A., and Gershon, S., 1976, Dopamine- Sensitive Adenylate Cyclase and Camp Phosphodiesterase In Substantia Nigra and Corpus Striatum Of Rat Brain, Life Sci. 19: 1061–1066.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. Tsai, B. S., and Lefkowitz, R. J., 1978, Agonist-Specific Effects Of Monovalent and Divalent Cations On Adenylate Cyclase-Coupled Alpha Adrenergic Receptors In Rabbit Platelets, Mol. Pharmacol. 14: 540–548.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. Ungerstedt, U., 1968, 6-Hydroxydopamine-Induced Degeneration Of Central Monoamine Neurons, Eur. J. Pharmacol. 5: 107 – 110.Google Scholar
  240. Ungerstedt, U., 1971A, Striatal Dopamine Release After Amphetamine Or Nerve Degeneration Revealed By Rotational Behavior, Acta Physiol. Scand . 82 (Suppl. 367):49–68.Google Scholar
  241. Ungerstedt, U., 19716, Postsynaptic Supersensitivity After 6-Hydroxydopamine-Induced Degeneration Of The Nigrostriatal Dopamine System Of The Rat Brain, Acta Physiol. Scand . 82 (Suppl. 367):69–93.Google Scholar
  242. Ungerstedt, U., and Arbuthnott, G. W., 1970, Quantitative Recording Of Rotational Behavior In Rats After 6-Hydroxydopamine Lesions Of The Nigrostriatal Dopamine System, Brain Res. 24: 485–493.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. Usdin, T. B., Creese, I., and Snyder, S. H., 1980, Regulation By Cations Of [3H]Spiroperidol Binding Associated With Dopamine Receptors Of Rat Brain, J. Neurochem. 34: 669–676.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. Vale, W., Rivier, J., Guillemin, R., and Rivier, C., 1979, Effects Of Purified Crf and Other Substances On The Secretion Of Acth and Beta-Endorphin-Like Immunoactivities By Cultured Anterior Or Neurointermediate Pituitary Cells, In: Central Nervous System Effects of Hypothalamic Hormones and Other Peptides ( R. Collu, A. Barbeau, J. Ducharne, and J. Rochefort, eds.), pp. 163–176, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  245. Walters, J. R., and Roth, R. H., 1976, Dopaminergic Neurons: an in vivo system for measuring drug interactions with presynaptic receptors, Naunyn-Schmiedeberg’s Arch. Pharmacol. 296: 5–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. Walton, K. G., Liepmann, P., and Baldessarini, R. J., 1978, Inhibition Of Dopamine- Stimulated Adenylate Cyclase Activity By Phenoxybenzamine, Eur. J. Pharmacol. 52: 231 — 234.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. Watling, K. J., Dowling, J. E., 1981, Dopaminergic Mechanisms In The Teleost Retina. I. Dopamine-Sensitive Adenylate Cyclase In Homogenates Of Carp Retina; Effects Of Agonists, Antagonists, and Ergots, J. Neurochem. 36: 559–568.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  248. Watling, K. J., Dowling, J. E., and Iversen, L. L., 1979, Dopamine Receptors In The Retina May All Be Linked To Adenylate Cyclase, Nature (London) 281: 578–580.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  249. Weiner, R. I., and Ganong, W. F., 1978, Role Of Brain Monoamines and Histamine In Regulation Of Anterior Pituitary Secretion, Physiol. Rev. 58: 905–976.Google Scholar
  250. Weiner, R. I., Cronin, M. J., Cheung, C. Y., Faure, N., Clark, B. R., and Goldsmith, P. C., 1979, Anterior Pituitary Dopamine Receptors and Prolactin, In: Catecholamines: Basic and Clinical Frontiers ( E. Usdin, I. J. Kopin, and J. Barchas, eds.), pp. 1218–1220, Pergamon Press, New York.Google Scholar
  251. Weiner, W. J., Goetz, C. G., Nausieda, P. A., and Klawans, H. L., 1979, Amphetamine- Induced Hypersensitivity In Guinea Pigs, Neurology 29: 1054–1057.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  252. Weinrich, P., and Seeman, P., 1980, Effect Of Kainic Acid On Striatal Dopamine Receptors, Brain Res. 198: 491–496.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. Williams, L. T., and Lefkowitz, R. J., 1977, Slowly Reversible Binding Of Catecholamine To A Nucleotide-Sensitive State Of The Beta-Adrenergic Receptor, J. Biol. Chem. 252: 7207–7212.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  254. Withy, R. M., Mayer, R. J., and Strange, P. G., 1980, [3H]Spiroperidol Binding To Brain Neurotransmitter Receptors, Febs Lett. 112: 293–295.Google Scholar
  255. Woodruff, G. N., and Freedman, S. B., 1981, Binding Of [3H]Sulpiride To Purified Rat Striatal Synaptic Membranes, Neuroscience 6: 407–410.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  256. York, D. H., 1975, Amine Receptors In Cns. Ii. Dopamine, In: Hand book of Psychopharmacology, Vol. 6 ( L. L. Iversen, S. D. Iversen, and S. H. Snyder, eds.), pp. 23–61, Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  257. Zahniser, N. R., and Molinoff, P. B., 1978, Effect Of Guanine Nucleotides On Striatal Dopamine Receptors, Nature (London) 275: 453–455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ian Creese
    • 1
  • Mark W. Hamblin
    • 1
  • Stuart E. Leff
    • 1
  • David R. Sibley
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of NeurosciencesUniversity of California, San Diego, School of MedicineLa JollaUSA

Personalised recommendations