Patterns in Urban and Rural Cancer Incidence

  • Roger R. Connelly
Part of the Basic Life Sciences book series (volume 6)


The Third National Cancer Survey (TNCS) was a project of the Biometry Branch of the National Cancer Institute conducted during the 3-year period 1969–71 in seven metropolitan areas and the two states of Iowa and Colorado. The primary objective was to provide detailed information on the incidence of cancer in the United States. The findings of the survey by sex, race, age, and geographic area of the patient and by anatomic site and histologic type of the cancer have been published (1). The primary purpose of this report is to present the results of additional analyses of the TNCS data from Iowa and Colorado for urban and rural cancer patterns. Comparisons with earlier and more recent data on the incidence of cancer in urban and rural areas of Iowa are also made for selected primary sites.


Multiple Myeloma Cancer Incidence Urban Resident Rural Resident Cancer Incidence Rate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Cutler, S. J. and J. L. Young, Jr. (eds.), “Third National Cancer Survey: Incidence Data,” National Cancer Institute Monograph 41, Washington, DC (1975).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Haenszel, W., S. C. Marcus, and E. G. Zimmerer, “Cancer Morbidity in Urban and Rural Iowa,” Public Health Monograph No. 37, Washington, DC (1956).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Young, J. L., Jr., C. L. Percy and A. J. Asire (eds.), “Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results: Incidence and Mortality Data, 1973–77,” National Cancer Institute Monograph 57, Washington, DC (1981).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Armitage, P., The chi-square test for heterogeneity of proportions, after adjustment for stratification, J.R. Statis. Soc. B 28: 150 (1966).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hakulien, T., A Mantel-Haenszel statistic for testing the association between a polychotomous exposure and a rare outcome, Amer. J. Epid. 113: 192 (1981).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Rothman, K. J. and J. D. Boise, “Epidemiologic Analysis with a Programmable Calculator,” NIH Publication No. 79–1649, Washington, DC (1979).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Tarone, R. E., On summary estimators of relative risk, J. Chron. Pis. 34: 463 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Devesa, S. S., and D. T. Silverman, Cancer incidence and mortality trends in the United States: 1935–74, JNCI 60: 545 (1978).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Levin, M. L., W. Haenszel, B. E. Carroll, P. R. Gerhardt, V. H. Handy, and S. C. Ingraham, II, Cancer Incidence in urban and rural areas of New York State, JNCI 24: 1243 (1960).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Nasca, P. C., W. S. Burnett, P. Greenwald, K. Breannan, P. Wolfgang, and K. Carlton, Population density as an Indicator of urban-rural differences in cancer incidence, upstate New York, 1968–1972, Am. J. Epid. 112: 362 (1980).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Melton, L. J., III, D. D. Brian and R. L. Williams, Urban- rural differential in breast cancer incidence and mortality in Olmstead County, Minnesota, 1935–1974, Int. J. Epid. 9: 155 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Doll, R., and R. Peto, The causes of cancer: Quantitative estimates of avoidable risks of cancer in the United States today, JNCI 66: 1192 (1981).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Karch, N. J. and M. A. Schneiderman, “Explaining the Urban Factor in Lung Cancer Mortality,” A Report to the Natural Resources Defense Council, Clement Associates, Washington, DC (1981).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    National Research Council, Subcommittee on Airborne Particles, Committee on Medical and Biologic Effects of Environmental Pollutants, “Airborn Particles,” University Park Press, Baltimore (1979).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Berg, J. W. and R. R. Connelly, Economic status and cancer incidence in Colorado, in: “Cancer Centers: Interdisciplinary Cancer Care and Cancer Epidemiology,” E. Grundmann and J. W. Cole, eds., Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart, 1979, pp. 203–213.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Devesa, S. S., A study of the association of cancer incidence with income and education among whites and blacks, Ph.D. dissertation, Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health (1979).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Devesa, S. S. and E. L. Diamond, Association of breast cancer and cervical cancer incidence with income and education among whites and blacks, JNCI 65: 515 (1980).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hoover, R., T. J. Mason, F. W. McKay, and J. F. Fraumeni, Geographic patterns of cancer mortality in the United States, in: “Persons at High Risk of Cancer,” J. F. Fraumeni, Jr., ed., Academic Press, New York, (1975).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hardell, L., M. Eriksson, P. Lenner and E. Lundgren, Malignant lymphoma and exposure to chemicals, especially organic solvents, chlorophenols and phenoxy acids: A case-control study, Br. J. Cancer 43: 169 (1981).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Blattner, W. A., A. Blair, and T. J. Mason, Multiple myeloma in the United States, 1950–1975, Cancer 48: 2547 (1981).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Cantor, K. P. and J. F. Fraumeni, Jr., Distribution of non- Hodgkin’s lymphoma in the United States between 1950 and 1975, Cancer Res. 40: 2645 (1980).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Linos, A., R. A. Kyle, W. M. O’Fallon, and L. T. Kurland, Incidence and secular trend of multiple myeloma in Olmstead County, Minnesota: 1965–77, JNCI 66: 17 (1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Burmelster, L. F., Cancer mortality in Iowa farmers, 1971–1978, JNCI 66: 461 (1981).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Archer, V. E. , Cancer mortality in Iowa farmers, JNCI 67:743 (1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 26.
    Pawlega, J. and R. Wallace, Nutrition and age at first birth in breast-cancer risk, Br, J, Cancer 41: 941 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • Roger R. Connelly
    • 1
  1. 1.Biometry BranchNational Cancer InstituteBethesdaUSA

Personalised recommendations